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Mescaline, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine, is the main active phenethylamine in several cacti native to Mexico and South America including Peyote (Lophophora williamsii), San Pedro (Echinopsis pachanoi), and Peruvian Torch (Echinopsis peruviana).
It is a psychedelic hallucinogen often compared to psilocybin and LSD because it mimics serotonin and binds primarily to the 5-HT2A receptors, however mescaline is the least potent of the three. The hallucinations are similar to that of magic mushrooms, but can last significantly longer.
Peyote has been used for spiritual purposes by various tribes of Native Americans of Mexico. Though mescaline is illegal, members of the Native American Church are exempt from federal law and allowed to consume Peyote for religious purposes.