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[top]Introduction to MDPV

MDPV, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, is an alkaloid in the pyrrolidine and ketone chemical classes. Pharmacologically, it functions as a dopamine-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) with stimulatory effects on the central nervous system and cardiovascular system. It was first synthesized by Boehringer Ingelheim and patented in 1969[1], but was never marketed. MDPV appeared as a recreational drug in 2005. It is usually classified as a research chemical. It is sometimes called 'PV' or 'PeeVee'.
MDPV is the 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted analog of the compound pyrovalerone, developed in the 1960s, which has been used for the treatment of chronic fatigue and as an anorectic, but caused problems of abuse and dependence. However, despite its structural similarity, the effects of MDPV bear little resemblance to other methylenedioxyphenylalkylamine derivatives such as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), instead producing primarily stimulant effects with only mild entactogenic qualities.

Read more: http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...#ixzz2Hznhvh2z


[top]Using MDPV

[top]Ways of administration

MDPV can be taken orally, sublingually, rectally, intravenously, intramuscularly, insufflated, and inhaled. Oral doses for most users start at about 5 mg, insufflated at about 3 mg, sublingually at 1-2 mg,[2] rectally at 1-2 mg,[3] intramuscular at 2.5 mg,[4] and inhaled at 1-2 mg.[5] Both the salt and the free base can be smoked. It has been suggested separating doses by an hour helps to prevent anxiety and tachycardia.[6] Another experienced user suggests a dosing interval of no less than 4 hours, and a maximum daily dose of no more than 30 mg.[7] Because MDPV is active at 1-2 mg, a scale accurate to 1 mg or less is essential for safe dosing.

[top]Effects of MDPV

MDPV has euphoric, sympathomimetic, anorectic, aphrodisiacal, and anxiogenic effects. It increases alertness and inhibits sleep. It is not entactogenic. In normal doses, it is not a hallucinogen, but in overdose it has been reported to cause symptoms similar to amphetamine psychosis, including paranoia, delusions, and visual and auditory hallucinations.[8]

Reports of euphoria with MDPV differ. Some users report that euphoria is only experienced the first few times MDPV is used.[9][10][11] With further use, euphoria rapidly decreases and disappears, although other effects of MDPV remain. The obsessive nature of MDPV use in some users may result from seeking to recapture the drug's initial euphoria. This behavior is similar to that of users of cocaine, also a NDRI.

There is no consensus on whether MDPV produces cloudy[12] or clear thinking.[13][14] Increased sociability is often reported. Aphrodisiacal effects are often reported.[15][16]

Descriptions of MDPV effects by DF members:

Quote:
"Swim says he finds MDPV a wonderful compund for getting things done, like cleaning the flat, getting long boring e-mails written and sent and working through shitloads of Uni-grade maths at hyperspeed. The lack of euphoria is almost concieved as positive by SWIM as it doesn't distract him from the task at hand."[17]
Quote:
"Basically, at low doses it's ideal for getting work done without the effects of fatigue denegrating perfotmance - be warned though, the 'more is better' approach with this drug is a sure-fire route to disaster."[3]
Quote:
"...lower doses of MDPV produces a clarity of thought far superior to just about every other stimulant I've ever tried."[14]
Quote:
"MDPV is great ADD medication ISO, I think in doses of 2-3 mg every 8 hours is great for energy and concentration with almost no side effect. The key of this chemical is keeping dosage low and spared over time."[18]
Quote:
"My cat enjoys smallish oral doses of MDPV (sub-4mg with glass of water) -- fantastic study aid. No harsh comedown. Kitty cat gets lots done, like having a strong coffee, but without the caffeine jitters. Razor-sharp mental focus for about 3-4 hours."[19]
Quote:
"SWIM personally now prefers MDPV over cocaine. Two Hours of intense, euphoric rush followed by hightenes alertness and sense of pleasure. Sex is... woah."[15]
Quote:
"Very clean, the DA rush is awesome. Read big boost in ego, sex drive and alertness....."[16]
Quote:
"MDPV gives to swim an immediate desire to masturbate. So he take care to not using it daily but two times a month. However he will masturabate all the time."[20]
Quote:
"it is a very fine line between clearheadedness and insanity with this compound."[13]

[top]Combinations with MDPV

Note: these combinations have been reported by Drugs-Forum members. Being listed here does not constitute a recommendation. These drug combinations may be dangerous. It is notable how often the purpose of the drug combination is to counteract MDPV side-effects or treat an inadvertant MDPV overdose.
  • Combined with propanolol, 10-20 mg, to counteract the rapid heart rate and anxiety associated with MDPV.[16]
  • Combined with a beta blocker and a benzodiazepine to counteract a panic attack associated with MDPV.[21]
  • Eszopiclone/Lunesta taken to counteract the effects of MDPV and promote sleep.[22]
  • With GBL to counteract a minor MDPV overdose.[23][24]
  • With GHB as an aphrodisiac.[11]
  • With GHB to counteract irritability and being "really overly sensitive to stimuli" caused by MDPV.[25]
  • MDPV and 5-MeO-MIPT as an aphrodisiac.[26]
  • MDPV, 5-MeO-MIPT, and methylone is reported to mimic MDMA.[27]
  • MDPV and zolpidem/Ambien to produce visual hallucinations.[28]
  • With kratom.[5]
  • With LSD.[29]
  • With famotidine/Pepcid for stomach pain as an MDPV side-effect.[30]
  • With domperidone/Motilium for stomach pain as an MDPV side-effect.[31]
  • With ompeprazole for stomach pain as an MDPV side-effect.[32]
  • With phenibut, which is said to take "much of the edge off MDPV, while causing neither drowsiness nor sedation."[33]
  • With codeine, for a speedball-like effect.[34]
  • With MDMA.[35]
  • With methylone.[36]
  • 8 mg MDPV insufflated and 70 mg Morphine sulfate insufflated. "...incredible euphoria. Orgasms without moving. Almost scarry."[37]
  • Opinions are mixed as to whether MDPV goes well with alcohol, although most reports are positive. [38]
  • With poppy tea, reported as the 'most euphoric' drug combination. [39]

[top]Different Uses for MDPV

  • Suggested as an aphrodisiac.[11][40]
  • Suggested as substitute for cocaine.[15][16]
  • As a study aid.[19]


[top]Chemistry of MDPV

CAS Number: 687603-66-3 (base), 24622-62-6 (hydrochloride salt)
IUPAC Name: 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one
Synonyms: 1-(3,4-Methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-pyrrolidinylpentan-1-one
Other names: MDPK (Methylene Dioxy Pyrrolidine Ketone).
Molecular Formula: C16H21NO3
Molecular Weight: 311.80 amu (as hydrochloride)
Density: 1.169 g/cm3
Melting Point: 238 - 239 °C with decomposition
Solubility (as hydrochloride): soluble in chloroform, methanol, deionized water

Mass and NMR spectroscopic characterization.[41]

MDPV dissolved in water has been reported to degrade quickly. There is general agreement it should be stored dry, in a sealed container, but no data on its rate of degradation under these conditions.


[top]Pharmacology of MDPV

[top]Pharmacokinetics

No information is available in the published scientific literature about the pharmacokinetics of MDPV.

It has been reported that MDPV is not detected on common urine drug tests.[42] It can be detected with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

[top]Metabolism

An in-vitro study using human liver microsomes demonstrated that MDPV is initially metabolized by CYP450 into catechol and methyl catechol pyrovalerone. These species are then glucuronidated or sulfated by uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase and sulfotransferase.[3] (Glucuronidation and sulfation are common chemical transformations performed by the body, chiefly in the liver. They render foreign substances more water-soluble and enable them to be excreted through the kidneys or bowel, and may also reduce their toxicity.)



[top]The dangers of MDPV

[top]Habituation/addiction

MDPV is a dopamine re-uptake inhibitor, and increases the level of dopamine in the synaptic cleft of neurons which it affects. Drugs which increase synaptic dopamine in the ventral striatum are often psychologically habituating. MDPV has been described as "strongly habituating".[43]

Quotes from DF members regarding MDPV's habituating properties:

Quote:
"MDPV is like the bastard with a whip you've got to obey or you get hurt. Then you obey and get hurt even worse. Finally, it's "Thank you sir may I have another... thank you sir, may I have another... thank you sir, may I have another..." and you wonder why you've come to enjoy feeling like shit nearly every waking moment. You vow never to touch MDPV again, then an hour or two after it wears off you find yourself eagerly using MDPV."[44]
Quote:
"MDPV is by far the most addictive in the sense of cravings etc of everything coming under the 'RC' heading."[45]
Quote:
"MDPV is the most compulsive drug swim has ever done, he just can't stop hitting that pipe, it's worse than fucking crack! He's been at it since 11am, 16 hours ago, and in that time he's done 150mg so far, solely via the pipe, far too much!! He's still got over 300mg left, aargh!!! ...He's not even sure if he's still enjoying it, don't think he is, but still he can't stop hitting that pipe for some reason (though he does know why really, dopamine = reward innit). Bloody strange substance! Any swimer fancy coming round and freeing swim of this bloody pipe?"[46]
Quote:
"1 gram. 6 days. 0 sleep. 0 food. 2 12oz bottles of water. Severe Dehydration (Cracked and blistered lips, sores in the mouth, sore throat). Stimulant Psychosis. He thought his limbs weren't getting enough oxygen and turning purple. Even after other sober monkeys re-assured him that he was OK, he was convinced he was losing his limbs. Complete defeat and surrender to that drug. Poor poor monkey. SWIY can be one of those people who reads all the comments about how insane this drug is, that it produces extreme anxiety and paranoia, and yet you go back RELENTLESSLY...and you can think to yourself 'Nah, SWIY knows when to stop, SWIY can have a gram on him/her and only dabble in a mg or 2 every now and then. And besides, if the side-effects are so bad SWIY won't want to do any more and stop.' You can think that. But you're most likely very wrong. MDPV is brutal, not fun, and strangely powerful."[47]
Some routes of administration may be safer than other. There is general agreement that oral or sublingual dosing is less likely to lead to binging, habituation, and overdose than smoking. However, even with moderate oral use, one user reported a worrisome pattern of gradually increasing tolerance and increasing dose size, and the beginnings of obsessive thoughts about the drug:

Quote:
"SWIM has found some fiending with this chem. Surprise, surprise. SWIM & MDPV get along together a little too well. Orally, a single daily dose around 6mg is the sweet spot. Tons of energy and mood elevation for several hours. Really comes in handy for getting things done. However, SWIM is now finding a moderately strong impulse to use MDPV almost daily, as an adjunct to strong coffee during the day. SWIM's brain is finding it difficult to NOT THINK about the MDPV. All those neatly folded packages stored away, conveniently pre-weighed at 6mg amounts... they're calling SWIM. "Yoo hoo!", they playfully taunt. SWIM has even gotten used to the horrible bitter taste from dosing, and easily recognizes the stages of MDPV absorption, relishing the various physiological and mental effects."[48]

[top]Sympathetic over-stimulation

MDPV inhibits re-uptake of dopamine and norepinephrine. Both of these substances are neurotransmitters in the sympathetic neurons of the autonomic nervous system, and both also have direct effects on other tissues, such as blood vessels and the heart. Toxic side-effects of NDRI substances reflect over-activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Symptoms include tachycardia, hypertension, diaphoresis, and anxiety, sometimes extreme. In serious overdose, anxiety can progress to frank psychosis.

Even at normal recreational doses, moderate tachycardia is common. This tachycardia is noticed to increase with even mild exertion.[49]

There is general agreement that the line between pleasure and pain is narrow with MDPV. The user who is successful with a low dose is inclined to push the dose higher in search of more euphoria, and will at some point hit toxic levels, often without warning.

Panic attacks are common. New users frequently believe, after having used MDPV a few times, that they have learned to use the drug safely, and the first panic attack can come unexpectedly.[21][50]

Descriptions of MDPV toxic effects by DF members:

Quote:
"SWIM feels that MDPV is not as friendly as other stims. It is too dose sensitive when it comes to catacholamines. With cocaine or speed, SWIM can push the euphoria way higher with repeated use, but with MDPV, hitting that magic 8mg creates a super unpleasant state of of extreme tachycardia (160-180bpm), sweating, dizziness, numbness of extremities, rapid and weak peripheral pulses with dropped beats, extreme overstimulation, shakes and confusion. This translates to SWIM as 'about to overdose and flop like a fish'."[51]
Quote:
[From a report of vivid visual hallucinations and delusions during a three day binge of insufflating MDPV] "I would experience extremely releastic hallucinations thoughs, thinking a draw full of plain t-shirts was all colourful t-shirts and thinking somebody had just muddled up and put them in the wrong draw... thinking I was sharing a room with people, believing I was sleeping on the street as part of a project, thinking I had woken up in the future, seeing a midget climb my shelves, see a cat in a santa outfit, birds on my window ceil made of tinsil, actually talking to someone who I thought I was sleeping on my floor........ all really wierd stuff but it seemed perfectly plausable at the time and made sense."[8]
Quote:
"Monkey has never experienced full blown paranoid psychosis like he is from his recent MDPV binge (both with nights of sleep and nights without). He took the dosages way to far, (shamefully) admitting an excessive amount administered intravenously. Monkey developed a temporary psychotic state – which he is currently at the tail end of – where every night he thought people were outside of his apartment that wanted to extort him for everything he owned and possibly kill / beat him to death... This is the only drug that has ever caused temporary psychosis for monkey. Let this be a warning to all other primates."[52]
One user reported "auditory hallucinations of a particularly catlike-mewling nature."[53]
Quote:
"[ROA were] IM, IV and vaporizing. Suddenly 15 mg a night became hundreds, towards the end easily a gram in 24 hours. Remarkably there were no major physical side effects besides vasoconstriction, a dirty feeling in the hair and skin, fatigue, tachycardia and jumpiness; BUT psychologically it had the most unique and destructive effects of any drug except maybe freebase cocaine (which in MSBF's mind is the more benign of the two - psychologically that it). These binges would last from 3-9 days with nonstop nightly use (every few minutes) and a hiatus during the day with hourly bumps to let the tolerance go down. MDPV tolerance short term kicks in very fast which is why you can use such vast amounts and survive. There are two effects - at a low dose it is a ritalin like stimulant. At high doses the stimulation hits a plateau very quickly and wears off hours after use, but a new effect takes over - a combination paranoid, psychedelic, deleriant, nyphomaniac effect for lack of a better way to describe it... The paranoia from this is akin to that of day 7 of a methamphetamine binge with delusions of being followed, hearing voices and footsteps around the corner, seeing people in the room with MSBF, and elaborate conspiracy plots in MSBF’s head. MSBF has been convinced of being robbed of MDPV, searched the carpet for hours to find lost crumbs of powder, was sure of being followed, thinking there was construction going on outside of the bedroom door, family plotting an intervention, etc... MSBF would only stop a binge when MSBF started to get delusionally paranoid, and the comedown was the worst of anything ever. It lasts about a month with the first few days being like a detox. Nausea, vomiting, dizzy spells, inability to exercise, extreme fatigue to the point of falling asleep standing up mid sentence, and an unrelenting depression, mood swings, tremors and anhedonia. The almost narcoleptic like fatigue, depression, mood swings, anhedonia, and inability to exercise last about a month after stopping but then MSBF seems to have gone back to normal after that with no lingering effects other than a temptation to use it again. MSBF rarely disposes of drugs, but gratefully flushed the last 8 grams of this stuff down the sink many months ago, along with throwing away all paraphernalia associated with it."[54]

[top]Other adverse effects

[top]Abdominal pain

Complaints of abdominal pain in MDPV users are common.[49][55][30][31]] The pain may be minor, but there have been reports of severe pain and vomiting blood. Although the underlying pathology is not known with certainty, H2 blockers have been reported to help[30], which suggests that gastritis, esophagitis, or peptic ulcer might be the cause. Domperidone/Motilium has also been recomended for this symptom.[31]

[top]Rhabdomyolysis and kidney damage

Rhabdomyolysis is muscle breakdown. When muscle is damaged, proteins such as myoglobin are released into the bloodstream in large amounts. In severe rhabdomyolysis, these proteins can damage the kidneys. Often this damage is reversible, but in severe cases, permanent kidney damage or even kidney failure may result.

One user reported elevated creatine kinase levels after a three-day MDPV binge (creatine kinase is a measure of muscle damage).[56] Another user reported 'mild kidney dysfunction'. [57]. He attributed it to concurrent use of 'poppers' and resulting hemolysis, but MDPV-related rhabdomyolysis may also have been a contributing factor.

It has been theorized, though never proven, that rhabodomyolysis in stimulant users is caused by dehydration, and preemptive vigorous oral hydration is therefore often advised.

[top]Movement disorders

Transient symptoms suggestive of Parkinson's Disease have been reported during MDPV use. These are descriptions from reports:

Quote:
"i aslo feel it has an effect on some cerebellum / spatial coordination / balance-related structures as there is noted peripheral jerkiness to movements and a lesser perceived but still noted decrease in hand-eye coordination, which, if left unmitigated, with prolonged use becomes rather severe."[53]
Quote:
"[SWIM] could not master the rapid rhythm of touch-typing. It seemed to be due to a curious inability to initiate movement: a finger would pause before hitting a key until SWIM consciously forced it to strike the key. Now, difficulty initiating movement is one of the cardinal signs of Parkinson's disease...SWIM didn't have any of the other signs of Parkinsonism, and had no gait problems, no fine motor problems (handwriting was normal), but still, this was a very disturbin' development...Thankfully, the symptom went away in the next 24 hours, and SWIM's typing has been back to normal since. SWIM still thinks it was some sort of dopamine-depletion phenomenon."[58]
Quote:
"...hand writing is like parkisonian patients ! People if you get blurry vision and that your hand writing does not look like yours (very tiny, unreadable almost), if you keep pushing, you are almost 100% sure to fall into psychosis..."[59]
One user with similar symptoms was hospitalized with a suspected stroke.[60] However, the symptoms resolved.

DF has no reports of long-term Parkinsonian symptoms related to MDPV use. Thus far, these symptoms appear to be self-limited. However, sub-clinical damage to movement centers in the substania niagra that may not emerge until much later cannot be excluded.

[top]Long-term cognitive changes

One DF member reports MDPV causes long-term changes in cognition and emotional stability[61] and "permanent reorientation of the reward circuitry value systems."[53]


[top]Marketing of MDPV

Besides being sold under its own name, MDPV has often been reported as an ingredient in 'legal highs' and 'bath salts'. Prior to the ban on cathinone-like substances in the United Kingdom in April, 2010, an analysis of 18 products marketed as legal highs revealed MDPV as an undisclosed ingredient in nine. In six products it was the only ingredient.[62] Even after the ban, an analysis of 17 products marketed as 'NRG-1', 'NRG-2', MDAI, or dimethocaine revealed that four of the NRG-1 products contained MDPV, which was illegal to sell or possess in the United Kingdom at that time.[63]


[top]Forms of MDPV

MDPV is most frequently found as a water-soluble salt. It can be converted to the free base by basification with sodium bicarbonate or 10% ammonia. Because of its semi-liquid physical properties, the free base is difficult to handle and measure.

[top]Appearance of MDPV

MDPV salt is most commonly described as a white or tan powder. Since 2010, most samples in commercial trade have been described as white; the tan product is increasingly scarce. Early samples found in Europe circa 2007 are reported to have been gray in color. MDPV base is a yellow-green oily gel with a sweet, floral, and chemical odor.

Users who have experience with both white and tan MDPV prefer the tan-colored product, describing it as more euphoric and more aphrodisiacal than the white version. The difference between these two products is unknown.

[top]Images of MDPV






[top]Legal status of MDPV

[top]United Nations

MDPV is not scheduled in the 1971 United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

[top]USA

In the United States, MDPV is a DEA federally scheduled drug. On October 21, 2011, the DEA issued a temporary one year ban on MDPV, classifying it as a schedule I substance. Schedule I status is reserved for those substances with a high potential for abuse, no currently accepted use for treatment in the United States and a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug under medical supervision.[20][21]



[top]State laws

Prior to the Federal ban being announced, it was already banned in in Louisiana[1] and Florida.[22][23][24][25]
On March 24, 2011, Kentucky passed bill HB 121 which makes MDPV, as well as three other cathinones, controlled substances in the state. It also makes it a Class A misdemeanor to sell the drug, and a Class B misdemeanor to possess it.[26]
MDPV is banned in New Jersey under Pamela's Law. The law is named after Pamela Schmidt, a Rutgers University student, murdered in March 2011 by an alleged user of MDPV.[27]
As of April 15, 2011, two of the chemicals used in making MDPV had been banned in seven states, including Louisiana, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, North Dakota, Washington and New Jersey. One of the chemicals used in MDPV has been banned in 10 more states, including, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, New Mexico, Arkansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Virgina, West Virginia and North Carolina.[28]
The New Jersey Division of Consumer Affairs made it "a crime to [knowingly] manufacture, distribute, sell, or possess designer drugs labeled as 'bath salts'"[29][30]
On May 5, 2011, Tennessee Governor Bill Haslam signed a law making it a crime to knowingly produce, manufacture, distribute, sell, offer for sale or possess with intent to produce, manufacture, distribute, sell, or offer for sale any product containing 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV).[31]
On July 6, 2011, the governor of Maine signed a bill establishing fines for possession and penalties for trafficking of MDPV.[32]
On September 7, 2011, the DEA took advantage of its emergency scheduling authority to ban Mephedrone (4-MMC), MDPV, and Methylone (M1). The substances will be illegal to possess and sell for 12 months until the DEA and Department of Health and Human Services (DHS) determines if these substances should be permanently banned.[citation needed]
On October 17, 2011, an Ohio law banning Synthetic Drugs took effect barring selling and/or possession of "any material, compound, mixture, or preparation that contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers" listing (1) ephedrine and (2) pyrovalerone. It also includes "Methyenedioxypyrovalerone" and Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, or MDPV (as described in this article) and appears unaffected by this law as it is: (1) not mentioned and (2) chemically bonded to a pyrovalerone group/(as opposed to a mixture, compound or complex containing pyrovalerone.) Regardless, it is illegal under the temporary DEA ban to own, sell, purchase and possess.

[top]EU

MDPV is not licensed by the European Medicines Agency. MDPV is not controlled at the EU level. Some individual countries have national laws regarding it.[64]

Sweden: MDPV was made a scheduled drug on February 1, 2010. One prosecution has occurred. The offender received, after appeal, a sentence of six years in prison.[65]

Denmark: MDPV was listed as a Schedule B narcotic on July 1, 2008. This listing went into effect on March 13, 2009.[66]

Finland: MDPV was listed as a narcotic drug without medicinal value late 2012.

Republic of Ireland: MDPV apparently falls under the Criminal Justice (Psychoactive Substances) Act of 2010, in effect since August 23, 2010. This act makes it illegal to "sell or supply for human consumption substances which are not specifically prescribed under the Misuse of Drugs Acts, but which have psychoactive effects."[67]

United Kingdom: MDPV is a Class B drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act of 1971, by way of Order 2010, which banned many cathinone-like psychoactive drugs This classification went into effect April 16, 2010.[68]

[top]Other Countries



[top]History of MDPV

1969: Boehringer Ingelheim files a patent application for MDPV.[1]

2005: MDPV appears as a recreational drug; first mention on Drugs-Forum.[69]

2007: First seizure of MDPV as a recreational drug, by customs officials in the German state of Saxony. The drug had been shipped from China.[41]

2008: First seizure of MDPV in the United States.[70]

2010: MDPV made a controlled drug in the UK and Sweden. First reports of the widespread retail marketing of 'bath salts' containing MDPV in the US.

2011: MDPV sale and possession are banned in the US states of Florida and Louisiana.


Popularity of MDPV over time:





[top]MDPV on Drugs-Forum


Main MDPV experience thread. Post & read experiences with MDPV.

MDPV information thread. Post and read information about MDPV. (This is an older thread, and also contains some experience reports. Current experience reports should go in the main experience thread.)

Mephedrone & Beta-Ketones Forum. MDPV has a beta-ketone structure, and most posts about it should be in this forum.

Mephedrone & Beta-Ketones Image Gallery. Photos that relate to beta-ketones, including MDPV.



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[top]References

  1. ^ a b Patent application by Boehringer Ingelheim for MDPV.
  2. ^ snapper (2009, October 21) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 213] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...&postcount=213
  3. ^ a b c fastandbulbous (2006, September 9) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 83] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...4&postcount=83
  4. ^ fastandbulbous (2006, July 15) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 66] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...2&postcount=66
  5. ^ a b snapper (2006, September 1) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 82] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...7&postcount=82
  6. ^ snapper (2006, November 25) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 117] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...&postcount=117
  7. ^ fastandbulbous (2006, November 3) MDPV Experience Report(s). [Msg 19] Message posted to https://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sh...4&postcount=19
  8. ^ a b BoyInTheCountry (2010, April 17) MDPV Experience Report(s). [Msg 265] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...&postcount=265
  9. ^ nnizzle (2010, July 8) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 309] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...&postcount=309
  10. ^ Snouter Fancier (2010, September 18) Endless Chase for High. [Msg 3] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...79&postcount=3
  11. ^ a b c Synesthesiac (2009, September 13) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info [Msg 197] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...&postcount=197
  12. ^ m_tristan17 (2010, June 18) MDPV Experience Report(s). [Msg 272] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...&postcount=272
  13. ^ a b nanobrain (2006, July 18) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 67] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...3&postcount=67
  14. ^ a b fastandbulbous (2006, September 21) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 89] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...9&postcount=89
  15. ^ a b c Nimbus (2009, December 7) Cocaine substitutes & alternatives. [Msg 91] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...5&postcount=91
  16. ^ a b c d mjolnir69 (2009, November 22) Cocaine substitutes & alternatives. [Msg 88] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...1&postcount=88
  17. ^ ExCowboy (2007, February 3) MDPV Experience Report(s). [Msg 93] Message posted to https://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sh...8&postcount=93
  18. ^ Lehendakari (2008, February 7) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 156] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...&postcount=156
  19. ^ a b konshuss (2008, September 29) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 165] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...&postcount=165
  20. ^ systemdoll (2010, January 26) What's SWIY's relationship with MDPV? [Msg 15] Message posted to https://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sh...0&postcount=15
  21. ^ a b Frogster (2006, August 28) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 79] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...8&postcount=79
  22. ^ Nicaine (2006, November 24) Lunesta (Eszopiclone) Experiences. [Msg 27] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...8&postcount=27
  23. ^ radio879 (2005, September 25) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 26] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...5&postcount=26
  24. ^ fastandbulbous (2006, July 2) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 59] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...7&postcount=59
  25. ^ radio879 (2005, December 20) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 41] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...6&postcount=41
  26. ^ Snapper (2008, May 10) Comparison 5-meo-mipt(Moxy) & 5-meo-dipt (Foxy methoxy). [Msg 11] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...4&postcount=11
  27. ^ Snapper (2007, August 31) Best METHYLONE + PHENETHYLAMINE or TRYPTAMINE Combo for enhanced MDMA-like effect. [Msg 5] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...19&postcount=5
  28. ^ Tinytitan (2010, May 16) Ambien (Zolpidem) Recreational Dosage? [Msg 63] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...2&postcount=63
  29. ^ fastandbulbous (2006, October 20) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 92] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...4&postcount=92
  30. ^ a b c snapper (2008, October 29) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 169] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...&postcount=169
  31. ^ a b c lulz (2009, August 13) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 182] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...&postcount=182
  32. ^ BurtonBaton (2010, August 22) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 318] Message posted to https://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sh...&postcount=318
  33. ^ Nicaine (2006, November 25) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 118] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...&postcount=118
  34. ^ Benzup! (2009, October 6) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 200] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...&postcount=200
  35. ^ nanobrain (2006, November 21) Favorite Ecstasy combination? [Msg 13] Message posted to https://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sh...7&postcount=13
  36. ^ psitryp (2005, November 30) Mixing Methylone w/Speed/PEAs/Tryps to LAST longer???? [Msg 33] Message posted to https://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sh...7&postcount=33
  37. ^ Systemdoll (2008, April 21) MDPV Experience Report(s). [Msg 133] Message posted to https://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sh...&postcount=133
  38. ^ Various DF members (2007, January 13) MDPV and alcohol ? Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...highlight=mdpv
  39. ^ G_nome (2010, October 3) Swim's most euphoric combination. [Msg 208] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...&postcount=208
  40. ^ JoeM (2008, April 24) Best Sex Stimulant for a Female. [Msg 177] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...&postcount=177
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  42. ^ Various Drugs-Forum members (2010) MDPV and drug tests. Message at:http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...highlight=mdpv
  43. ^ snapper (2006, October 11) addictive research chemicals. [Msg 43] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...9&postcount=43
  44. ^ Nicaine (2006, November 4) addictive research chemicals. [Msg 50] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...9&postcount=50
  45. ^ fastandbulbous (2007, January 10) addictive research chemicals. [Msg 60] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...6&postcount=60
  46. ^ G_nome (2010, March 4) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 270] Message posted to https://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sh...&postcount=270
  47. ^ Love4TheWeekend (2010, April 6) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 299] Message posted to https://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sh...&postcount=299
  48. ^ konshuss (2008, December 6) MDPV Experience Report(s). [Msg 194] Message posted to https://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sh...&postcount=194
  49. ^ a b William_Again (2005, August 26) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 9] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...15&postcount=9
  50. ^ Snouter Fancier (2010, February 18) MDPV Experience Report(s). [Msg 248] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...&postcount=248
  51. ^ snapper (2005, November 5) MDPV Experience Report(s). [Msg 24] Message posted to https://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sh...3&postcount=24
  52. ^ RealGanjaMan (2010, July 12) paranoia.... [Msg 12] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...0&postcount=12
  53. ^ a b c nanobrain (2006, July 26) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 71] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...6&postcount=71
  54. ^ snapper (2010, November 25) MDPV Experience Report(s). [Msg 278] Message posted to https://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sh...&postcount=278
  55. ^ RoboCop (2005, August 26) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 12] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...4&postcount=12
  56. ^ toe (2009, February 25) Physical Troubles from RC Use. [Msg 110] Message posted to https://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sh...&postcount=110
  57. ^ diethylether (2009, October 24) Physical Troubles from RC Use. [Msg 219] Message posted to https://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sh...&postcount=219
  58. ^ Snouter Fancier (2010, February 18) MDPV Experience Report(s). [Msg 248] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...&postcount=248
  59. ^ Tamis (2010, August 20) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 317] Message posted to https://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sh...&postcount=317
  60. ^ gavlaaa (2010, April 21) MDPV Experience Report(s). [Msg 267] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...&postcount=267
  61. ^ nanobrain (2006, July 18) Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Drug Info. [Msg 67] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...3&postcount=67
  62. ^ Phenoxide (2010, August 5) Analysis of 17 RC products reveals a very concerning trend. [Msg 7] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...78&postcount=7
  63. ^ Phenoxide (2010, July 1) Analysis of 17 RC products reveals a very concerning trend. [Msg 1] Message posted to http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/sho...16&postcount=1
  64. ^ Table of substances controlled in European Union Countries and Norway. (2008) European Legal Database on Drugs http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/loc...15&linkid=6438. Retrieved from: http://eldd.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index5029EN.html
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Created by Snouter Fancier Gold member, 04-10-2010 at 06:19
Last edited by anj0vis Gold member, 24-07-2013 at 03:42
Last comment by Docta on 11-08-2011 at 03:52
9 Comments, 209,402 Views

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