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List of Nootropics

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Nootropics : An Introductory Guide
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Note from editor:
The Nootropics listed in this article have been compiled as described by various different authors. Therefore some are repeated but with different information. Some of the information is based on individuals experience or research and should not be regarded as being from a legitimate medical resource.
Edited by: Smoolio

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Author Key: Sections are colour coded to differentiate between different sources/authors.
Green: Unknown Author
Orange: R.U. Sirius
Purple: John Morgenthaler
Blue: Bj Krawchuk (krawchuk@cpsc.ucalgary.ca)
Red: Misc. or Unknown Authors
(If you are the original author of part or part(s) of this guide, please contact editor/admin to be referenced.)
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Contents




[top]Introduction


Quick guide to the most popular nootropic supplements. All can be stacked, or taken alone. Neurostim+C is a good premade stack, though I like to add piracetam to it when I need to concentrate in order to learn (only 4 more months of grad school at night, yay). All of these typically take days to weeks to make a noticeable improvement on concentration and focus, and are best taken in longer periods (2-3 months) followed by down time of one month. As with all supplements, start with the basics, and move on from there.

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[top]Piracetam


(2-oxo-Pyrrolidine Acetamide) - is a derivative of the neurotransmitter GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid). Chemically related to the amino acid Pyroglutamic Acid (Pyrrolidine Carboxylic acid), which occurs in cerebrospinal fluid and plays an important role in cognitive functioning.

Biochemical Effects

  • Enhances Brain Metabolism (By increasing Glucose Utilization, Blood & Oxygen Flow){Boosts mental energy & cerebral circulation}


  • Increases Cerebral Phospholipids & Cellular Membrane Fluidity (By interacting with the polar head moieties of the phospholipid bilayer) {Supports healthy neuron communication & structure}.


  • Supports Cognitive Receptors (By amplifying the density of the Muscarinic Cholinergic {Frontal Cortex, Striatum, & Hippocampus}, NMDA (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate) {Hippocampus}, & AMPA (Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-isoxazole-Propionic Acid) Cerebral Cortex Receptors {Strengthens neurotransmitter receptors involved in memory and neuroprotection}


  • Stimulates the Corpus Callosum, an area of the brain that controls communication between the left and right hemispheres (Increases communication between both hemispheres) {Involved in speech and creative thinking}.


  • Stimulates the Locus Coeruleus, (specialized neurons) {Involved in information processing, attention, cortical/behavioral arousal, learning and memory}


  • Inhibits Platelet Aggregation (By increasing Red-White blood cells & Platelet deformability, inhibiting thromboxane A2 synthetase or antagonism of thromboxane A2, reducing von Willebrand's factor & fibrinogen levels) {Supports Healthy Blood Flow}.


  • Decreases EEG complexity (Increases cooperatively of brain functional processing) {Positively effects Neuro-Electrical Functioning}.


  • Has a significant antioxidant effect.


  • Piracetam positively supports healthy cognitive & cardiovascular functioning by a multifaceted means of action.

Notes
Approved & used since 1970’s worldwide (Europe, Asia, and South American) for various health conditions. Recommended by many healthcare professionals and health organizations, such as the Life Extension Foundation, as a Nootropic.
Piracetum is the first step in the use of nootropics, it also stacks nicely with all of the following.

Dose
2-6 grams daily

When can I feel it?
Works within an hour to a few days.

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[top]Aniracetam


Aniracetam (1-Anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone) is a fat soluble potent analog of Piracetam.

Biochemical Effects
Similar to Piracetam, but due to its fat solubility its effects last longer and is far more potent.

  • Helps increase communication between your left and right sides of the brain, resulting in improved creatively, perception, and more.


  • Has an more potent AMPA receptor enhancing effect than Piracetam, resulting in better focus and concentration.


  • Been reported to be best ‘cetam for anti-anxiety effects

Dose
750-1500 mg Daily with meals

When can I feel it?
Works within an hour to a few days.

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[top]Oxiracetam


(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinacetamide) is a potent fast acting water soluble analog of Piracetam. Works faster than all other racetams.

Biochemical Effects
Similar to Piracetam, but much stronger than Aniracetam and far faster acting. The preferred premium Nootropic for the elite smart drug user.

  • Supports multiple aspects of Cognition


  • Boosts Brain ATP levels (Mental Energy)


  • Increase Choline Acetylcholinetranferase the neuro-enzyme that creates Acetylcholine (in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum) {Memory Support}

Dose
800-1600 mg Daily

When can I feel it?
Works within an hour to a few days.

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[top]Pramiracetam


Pramiracetam (N-{2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl}-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine-acetamide) is a fat soluble potent analog of Piracetam, the most potent Racetam compound being about 15 times stronger than Piracetam.

Dose
100-300mg daily

Availability
Sporadic due to customs issues.

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[top]L-Huperzine A


Huperzine A is a natural plant alkaloid (extracted from Huperzia serrata), which quickly and potently boosts memory, learning, and concentration. Used worldwide for decades in adults and high school students. Is considered the most potent short term memory enhancer available.

Biochemical Effects

  • Potently raises Acetylcholine (main memory neurotransmitter) by inhibiting its breakdown from Acetylcholinesterase.


  • Strengthens the Brain's NMDA receptors (Enhances Focus, Learning, and Brain Functioning)

Dose
Take 200-400 mcg daily for best results with meals.

When can I feel it?
Works within an hour to a few days.

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[top]Alpha GPC


(Alpha L-GlycerylPhosphorylCholine), also known as choline alfoscerate, is an unique NeuroActive form of choline that rapidly penetrates the blood brain barrier, naturally found in small amounts in milk and soybeans.

Biochemical Effects

  • A precursor for the neurotransmitter AcetylCholine [Supports Memory]


  • A precursor for PhosphatidylCholine [Supports Brain Structure]

Dose
300-2000 mg daily.

When can I feel it?
Works within a few days.

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[top]Vinpocetine


(Ethyl Apovincamine) is a derivative of vincamine (a phytonootropic from periwinkle). While less potent as a mental stimulant than vincamine, Vinpocetine is the preferred nootropic for Enhancing blood flow to the Brain, Eyes, and Ears. Its effects on Cerebral Blood Flow far exceeds all other nootropics.

Biochemical Effects

  • Enhances Brain Metabolism (By increasing Glucose Utilization, Blood & Oxygen Flow) (Boosts mental energy & cerebral circulation)


  • Stimulates the Locus Coeruleus, (specialized neurons) (Involved in information processing, attention, cortical/behavioral arousal, learning and memory)


  • Inhibits Platelet Aggregation (Reduces abnormal blood clots).


  • Has a significant antioxidant effect.


Dose
20-40 mg daily with meals.

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[top]Theanine


(gamma-ethylamino-L-glutamic acid) is an unique amino acid found in trace amounts in green tea. It converts in the brain into GABA, the neurochemical involved in inhibiting over active mental activities, such as stress, anxiety, worrying, and nervousness. Unlike herbs theanine protects & enhances Cognition, without causing sleepy or drowsiness.

Biochemical Effects

  • Instant relaxation due to its potent effects on raising GABA


  • Unlike the supplement GABA it passes through the blood brain barrier readily and has superior GABA raising effects.


  • Has been studied compared to Paxil.

Notes
In Japan it is used in soft drinks much like caffeine is added in the US, but to relax rather than stimulate the mind.

Dose
200-1000mg daily.

When can I feel it?
Works within a few hours.

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[top]Acetyl-L-Carnitine



(2-Acetoxy-3-(trimethylaminium)butanoic acid) is an amino acid-like compound related to Choline found in high levels in brain cells.

Biochemical Effects

  • Increases Acetylation of Coenzyme A (a precursor to Acetylcholine) [Memory Enhancer]


  • Enhances transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria [Increased Cellular Energy Levels]

Dose
500-3000mg daily

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[top]Choline


Choline supplements should be taken during the administration of all nootropics. Lecithin (caps and granules) is a cheap choline source. Lecithin should be taken in doses of 5-8 grams daily to support the nootropics. Alpha GPC (listed above) is another source for choline. It is more effective / more expensive, but only requires dosing in the 1-3 gram range to support choline levels in the brain.


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[top]Vasopressin


Definitely the most euphoric of the memory-enhancing intelligence-increase drugs outside of the one being called "Euphoria" (more on Euphoria later).
Vasopressin is marketed as Diapid, a prescription drug made by our old friends Sandoz. It can also be ordered as Vasopressin through chemical supply houses by those who know the ropes. I had five squirts of Vasopressin out of a nasal inhaler. I was surprised by how strong the effects were. I had that charged-up hyperconfident rush that one experiences with cocaine, but combined with much clearer ideation and without the numbing and discomfort or the strange and disquieting hard edges which often accompany even the more euphoric coke highs. It didn't last very long, about two hours, most of which unfortunately spent riding the BART and walking. By the time I got home, the experience had pretty well dissipated.
I did not have an opportunity to experience Vasopressin as a work/writing drug. It was clear, however, simply from reading (I was reading "Gravity's Rainbow" at the time and I consider that a fairly challenging test of comprehension) on the BART ride home, that Vasopressin is an excellent tool for rapid learning and comprehension of complex systems of thought.

The only other time I had Vasopressin, it was in the form of Diapid. I had only two squirts at a party late at night on top of fairly substantial amounts of marijuana and alcohol. It didn't noticeably cut through the depressant effects of those drugs. However, I did experience an intensified and prolonged orgasm!

Safety & Warnings
It is a naturally occurring peptide that can cause a wide variety of effects beyond those mentioned in the article. It strains the heart by reducing the heart's food and oxygen supply and increasing the heart's workload by increasing blood pressure. In individuals with hidden or overt heart problems, this can mean a heart attack. In addition vasopressin can cause a dangerous elevation in brain fluid pressure, leading to stroke, coma, or death.
Also it can produce vertigo, circumoral pallor, pounding headaches, cramps, diarrhea, gas, nausea, vomiting, urticaria, difficulty breathing, anaphylactic shock, and normal shock.
It is dangerous to use in people with a history of epilepsy, migraine, asthma, heart failure, or poor kidney function. Vasopressin can have dangerous interactions with most stimulants, including pemoline, caffeine, diet pills, and cold medications.

Overall vasopressin is a real Pandora's Box, but fortunately there is ongoing research to develop safer and more effective alternatives.

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[top]Hydergine


The invention of one Dr. Albert Hoffmann of Sandoz Laboratories. I know of many people who got their hands on buckets of this stuff and I know of nobody who continues to take it. The effects are said to be cumulative rather than immediate and everybody seems to lose interest. "I forgot to take my Hydergine" is a term which one often hears from chagrined "intelligence agents," fully cognizant (even without Hydergine) of the ironies involved. This probably says more about the people that I hang out with than about Hydergine as an intelligence increase agent.

Incidentally, Dr. Hoffmann told a friend of mine that one can get exactly the same effects one gets from daily megadoses of Hydergine by using 25 micrograms of LSD daily. I have not experimented with subthreshold acid as an IQ substance, so I cannot comment.

Safety & Warnings
It is an ergot alkaloid, the same chemical class as LSD, but with no psychedelic or immediate effects. It is currently prescribed to help alleviate some of the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, but, despite the tremendous numbers of people with this affliction, Hydergine is not widely used, mainly because it is only effective in about 1/3 of the people using it. As a matter of fact it worsens cognition in about 1/3 of people.
It is dangerous to use in individuals with any history of psychosis, low or high blood pressure, heart disease, pregnant women (at any point in pregnancy), or a history of migraines.
Hydergine has caused rashes, drug fever, headaches, dizziness, vision problems, appetite loss, nausea, vomiting, cramps, fainting, sluggishness, drowsiness, emotional withdrawal, apathy, nervousness, hostility, confusion, depression, weakness, collapse, and coma.

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[top]Lecithin, Choline



(with Vitamin C and B6)

While perhaps less intriguing and glamorous to technophilic reality hackers, most of these easily available cognitive enhancers have a substantially perceptible effect. LECITHIN seems to be the exception. Even at "Durk and Sandy" dosage levels there was no noticeable enhancement of focus, recall, etc. CHOLINE and INOSITOL, at about three grams each, produce mild but definite results with no discomfort and can be used daily. I did this once for about a month and found myself losing my sense of humor. However, if you're already humorless you might just as well give this a go. PHENYLALANINE is quite speedy. While it can be used for creativity and focus, it tends to make one irritable. For emergency use only.

Safety & Warnings
These compounds are both basically safe and effective if not spectacular. I would add a few notes though. Use caution with these if you have a history of epilepsy. Choline may be more effective when taken with inositol. B6 is more effective and better for you when taken in wide-spectrum mega-B vitamin supplements.
PHENYLALANINE is neurotoxic and can cause brain damage in about 2% of the population [uploader's note: the 2% with the metabolic disorder PKU, that is], and it's probably not good in large doses for anyone. TYROSINE on the other hand is not toxic and is a more effective substitute.
DEANER can be made more effective by combining it with METHIONINE, but be cautious of large doses of methionine if you have a history of psychosis. In addition, there are other nutrients that are save and effective in increasing psychological energy in most people, INOSINE, CYTOCHROME C, LYSINE, and GINSENG.

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[top]Deaner


This is getting really popular with the "health food set." Experientially, the effect is very subtle but noticeable. I've tried this a few times and what I've found is that if I already have a task to do, I will do it and, in retrospect, I will realize that I sustained my attention for an unusually long time without flagging or needing a break. However, if I use this (as I often do with other cognitive enhancers) without a precise sense of what the task at hand is, it doesn't clarify and help to motivate activity. This is an important point.
Drugs such as Vasopressin, Pemoline, Euphoria and THA can actually cut through confusion and ennui and help invoke will. My guess is that most of these substances also work, to varying degrees, on the pleasure centers of the brain, provoking one's natural 'joie di vivre' and thereby provoking enthusiasm for creative and organizational activities.

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[top]Pemoline


Usually combined with Magnesium. The information most frequently passed around in reference to MAGNESIUM PEMOLINE was published by the Church of the Tree of Life some years ago in their publication "Bark Leaf". It recommends taking "Mag-Pem" at 50-100 mgs. every day for two months in order to substantially increase your I.Q. OUCH! This program is a sure ticket to severe headaches and extreme nervousness. However, in the 20-30 milligram range, I've found that this can be used twice weekly with excellent results. The lift is very substantial and noticeable.

I, and several of my friends, find it particularly good for writing, both creative and functional. For rapid-fire associations and grand synthesis just combine it with moderate amounts of Cannabis (Sativa, if possible). It lasts about twelve hours, coming on slowly and having its greatest effect at around the fifth through the tenth hours. Clarity and verbal acuity are the strong points here. At times, the sheer mass of information, new thoughts and connections can overwhelm and put one into a rather confused state, particularly if one is not applying oneself to something. When this occurs I find that I can slow down my thoughts to a point where there is coherence simply by verbalizing them or writing them down. Unlike its close cousin "EUPHORIA," Pemoline is emotionally bland.
It is not a pleasure drug. WARNING: from my observations, approximately one in every ten people get nothin' but headaches from even small doses of Pemoline.

Safety & Warnings
PEMOLINE is an interesting drug at the center of some current research. Unfortunately, it is not known how the drug works. If it was, a safer alternative could be found. Pemoline has caused fatal liver failure, still births, La Tourette's Syndrome, seizures, hallucinations, uncontrollable movements of the tongue, lips, face, eyes, and extremities, depression, delirium, dizziness, irritability, headaches, drowsiness, insomnia, anorexia, nausea, and cramps. Caution should be used when combining it with any other drug because it is known to have strong dangerous interactions with many drugs. Finally, pemoline, a controlled substance, is recognized by the government as having an abuse/addiction liability.

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[top]PRL-8-53


Untried by your reviewer at this time. However, Durk Pearson is quoted in 'High Frontiers' as saying that "PRL-8-53 is a terrific memory enhancer. Normally you can memorize about seven or eight digits just by looking at them for a second. PRL-8-53 gives the average person a memory span of about 21 to 22 digits." He also reported that one amnesia victim was cured with one dose.

Safety & Warnings
I could find no information on this, even in the most up to date references. The fact that it still is referred to by its code number probably means that it is still highly experimental; they may not even know what its structure is yet. It might be safe, but you are playing neurochemical roulette.

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[top]THA


Untried by your reviewer at this time. Again, Durk Pearson, this time in 'High Frontiers/Reality Hackers Newsletter:' "In combination with arecoline, THA has been found to be remarkably effective as a memory improver ... it's important that the dosage be individualized ... too much will actually impair memory and produce sweating, excessive muscle tone and mouth-watering." The standard dosage is "1 to 2 mg." however, Durk recommends that you start with a quarter of that every two to four hours and work up - if you get those side effects, back off.

Safety & Warnings
This is potentially very dangerous. It is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor making its actions closely related to Nerve Gas, Pesticides and Strychnine. BE CAREFUL!

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[top]Centrophenoxine


Centrophenoxine is an intelligence booster and also an effective anti-aging therapy. It has been shown to cause improvements in various aspects of memory function and a 30% increase in lifespan of laboratory animals.

One of the most widely recognized aspects of aging is the buildup of lipofuscin in brain cells (lipofuscin is the stuff that age spots are made of.) Centrophenoxine removes lipofuscin deposits from brain cells and reduces its rate of accumulation in young brain cells. It also rejuvenates the synaptic structure - the area where the actual transfer of information takes place between nerve cells.

PRECAUTIONS: Centrophenoxine should not be used by persons who are easily excitable, people with severe arterial hypertension, or those subject to convulsions or involuntary musculoskeletal movements. The drug also should not be used by nursing mothers. Adverse effects are rare, but include hyperexcitability, insomnia, tremors, motion sickness, paradoxical drowsiness, and depression. There is no toxicity of Centrophenoxine at therapeutic doses.

DOSAGE: Take 1000 to 3000mg per day. Centrophenoxine takes effect very quickly. You'll notice an increase in alertness and a slight stimulating quality.

SOURCES: Centrophenoxine is not sold in the United States. It can be purchased over the counter in Mexico or by mail from the address below.

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[top]Choline


Choline can be found in several forms including choline bitartrate, choline chloride, or phosphatidyl choline. Phosphatidyl choline (PC) is the active ingredient of lecithin. All of these forms of choline will produce memory boosting effects, but PC has some unique effects as well.

Choline compounds, including PC, are able to pass through the blood-brain barrier, where the brain utilizes the choline to make acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in memory). Thus, choline enhances memory by increasing the amount of acetylcholine available for memory and thought processes.

PC has some other important health benefits. It functions as a source of structural material for every cell in the human body, particularly those of the brain and nerves. It also aids in the metabolism of fats, regulates blood cholesterol, and nourishes the fat-like sheathes of nerve fibers.

PRECAUTIONS: Any compound that acts like a precursor to acetylcholine such as choline, PC, or DMAE should not be used by people who are manic depressive because it can deepen the depressive phase. Choline bitartrate and choline chloride can sometimes cause a fishy odor or diarrhea. PC, however, does not have either of these effects.

DOSAGE: Take 3 grams of choline per day in three divided doses. If you're taking lecithin you need to take a lot more because only part of the lecithin is choline. Often the label will provide information on the quantity of choline per tablespoon. All forms of choline should be taken with one gram per day of vitamin B-5 so that the choline can be converted into acetylcholine.

SOURCES: Choline and lecithin are considered nutritional supplements and can be found at health food or drug stores. Commercial lecithin usually contains other oils and phosphatides besides phosphatidyl choline. Look at the label before you buy and make sure the product contains more than 30% phosphatidyl choline. Also, you should taste your lecithin and make sure it does not taste bitter (this indicates rancidity). Much lecithin on the market is rancid. The best form of lecithin I know is Twin Labs brand "PC 55" - it contains 55% PC and is always very fresh.

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[top]DHEA


Dehydroepiandosterone (pronounced dee-hi-dro-epp-ee-an-dro-ster-own) is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal gland. DHEA is the most abundant steroid in the human bloodstream. Research has found it to have significant anti-obesity, anti-tumor, anti-aging, and anti-cancer effects. DHEA levels naturally drop as people age and there is a good reason to think that taking a DHEA supplement may extend your life and make you more youthful while you're alive. Additionally, DHEA may be an important player in cognitive enhancement.

DHEA is involved in protecting brain neurons from senility-associated degenerative conditions like Alzheimer's disease. Not only does the neuronal degenerative condition occur most frequently at the time of lowest DHEA levels, but brain tissue contains more DHEA than is found in the bloodstream. In an experiment with brain cell tissue cultures, Dr. Eugene Roberts found that very low concentrations of DHEA were found to "increase the number of neurons, their ability to establish contacts, and their differentiation." DHEA also enhanced long-term memory in mice undergoing avoidance training. Perhaps it plays a similar role in human brain function.

DOSAGE of DHEA ranges from 50 mg to 2000 mg per day. There is no solid information indicating an optimal dosage for humans, but, if you want to get serious, you can get your DHEA levels checked every few months (for about $65), each time raising the amount of DHEA you take. When your blood levels reach what is normal for a 20-year-old human, then you're taking enough.

SOURCES: DHEA is now being used by many people with AIDS because of its immune enhancement and antiviral effects. DHEA is not FDA approved but AIDS buyers groups are able to sell it to members because the FDA has a policy of looking the other way when it comes to the activity of these groups.

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[top]Hydergine (Ergoloid Mesylates)


Research in other countries has shown that Hydergine improves mental function, prevents damage to brain cells, and may even be able to reverse existing damage to brain cells. Hydergine acts in several ways to enhance mental capabilities and slow down or reverse the aging processes in the brain. Its wide variety of effects include the following:

1. Increases in blood supply to the brain.
2. Increases the amount of oxygen delivered to the brain.
3. Enhances metabolism in brain cells.
4. Protects the brain from damage during periods of decreased and/or insufficient oxygen supply.
5. Slows the deposit of age pigment (lipofuscin) in the brain.
6. Prevents free radical damage to brain cells.
7. Increases intelligence, memory, learning and recall.
8. Normalizes systolic blood pressure.
9. lowers abnormal high cholesterol levels in some cases.
10. Reduces symptoms of tiredness, dizziness, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears).

One way that Hydergine may enhance memory and learning is by mimicking the effect of a substance called nerve growth factor (NGF). NGF stimulates protein synthesis that results in the growth of dendrites in brain cells. Dendrites facilitate communication throughout the central nervous system and are necessary for memory and learning. New learning requires new dendritic growth.

PRECAUTIONS: If too large a dose is used when first taking Hydergine. it may cause slight nausea, gastric disturbance, or headache. Overall, Hydergine does not produce any serious side effects, it is non-toxic even at very large doses, and it is contraindicated only for individuals who have chronic or acute psychosis.

DOSAGE: The US recommended dosage is 3 mg per day; however, the European recommended dosage is 9 mg per day, taken in three divided doses. Most of the research has been done at levels of 9 to 12 mg per day. It may take several weeks before you notice the effects of hydergine.

SOURCES: Hydergine is available in the United States and you can buy it if you have a doctor's prescription, but keep in mind that your doctor may not be familiar with the uses I have discussed. It can also be purchased over the counter in Mexico or by mail from overseas (see below).

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[top]Sulbutiamine (Arcalion)


Sulbutiamine is a new compound that has been described as being like Hydergine only better. It has been shown to facilitate wakefulness, improve long-term memory, speed up reaction time, decrease anxiety, and increase overall resistance to stress.

DOSAGE: To combat fatigue take two 200mg tablets per day, always with breakfast or an AM meal, for a period of 20 days. Do not exceed three tablets at any time as this very powerful substance may cause severe headaches. Other than this, Sulbutiamine has no known adverse side effects.

SOURCES: Sulbutiamine is not sold in the United States. It can be purchased by mail order from the address below.

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[top]Vasopressin (Diapid)


Vasopressin is a brain hormone that is released by the pituitary gland. It improves attention, concentration, memory retention, and recall (both short-term and long-term). Vasopressin facilitates more effective learning by helping to "imprint" new information in the memory centers of the brain, a function which cannot be achieved without the action of vasopressin.

Cocaine, LSD, amphetamines, Ritalin, and Cylert (pemoline) cause a release of vasopressin. Frequent use of these drugs can deplete levels of vasopressin with a result of making you slow and dopey. If you feel burnt out, a whiff of vasopressin can transform your experience in about 10 seconds because it is a direct application of the specific brain chemical that has been depleted.

Alcohol and marijuana, however, inhibit the release of vasopressin. A whiff of vasopressin when using these drugs will compensate for much of the dopiness caused by them.

Vasopressin is very useful in situation where there is a large amount of new information to learn. It increases your ability to memorize and recall specific factual information.

PRECAUTIONS: Vasopressin usually produces the following side effects: runny nose, nasal congestion, itch or irritation of the nasal passages, headache, abdominal cramps, and increased bowel movements. Vasopressin has not been proven safe for use during pregnancy.

DOSAGE: Vasopressin usually comes in a nasal spray bottle. Most studies showing memory improvement have been done with a dose of 12 to 16 USP per day or about two whiffs three or four times per day. Vasopressin produces a noticeable effect within seconds.

SOURCES: Vasopressin is available in the United States. You can buy it if you have a doctor's prescription, but keep in mind that your doctor may not be familiar with the uses I have discussed. It can also be purchased over the counter in Mexico or by mail from overseas (see below).

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[top]Vinpocetine (Cavinton)


Vinpocetine, like Piracetam, is a nootropic drug and a powerful memory enhancer. It facilitates cerebral metabolism by improving cerebral microcirculation (blood flow), stepping up brain cells' production of ATP (the cellular energy molecule), increasing the brain's use of glucose, and increasing the brain's oxygen utilization.
Vinpocetine is often used for the treatment of cerebral circulatory disorders such as memory problems, aphasia, apraxia, motor disorders, dizziness, and headache.

PRECAUTIONS: Adverse effects are rare, but include hypotension and tachycardia. It has no drug interactions, no toxicity, and is generally very safe.

DOSAGE: One or two 5 mg. tablets per day.

SOURCES: Vinpocetine is not sold in the United States. It can be purchased by mail from the address below.

MAIL ORDER:
A little known FDA ruling now allows the importation of a three-month personal supply of drugs as long as they are regarded as safe in other countries. Ordering safe but unapproved drugs is now legal under the new FDA pilot guidelines, Chapter 971. This compromise was made under pressure from AIDS political action groups because the were being denied access to potentially life-saving substances.
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[top]Amino Acids and their Effects



[top]Phenylalanine / L-Phenylalanine


  • converted into tyrosine which is a precursor to noradrenaline (NE) and dopamine
  • like all amino acids best taken on empty stomach since it competes with proteins to cross the blood brain barrier.
  • requires vitamins C and B-6 for the conversion to NE.
  • Dosage: 500 - 1000mg along with 1g C, 30-50mg B-6
  • phenylalanine also stimulates the release of cholecystokinin, which is the body's own appetite-suppressant, can increase sexual interest
  • improves memory and mental alertness
  • antidepressant
  • do not use L-phenylalanine or L-tyrosine if you areusing MAO inhibitors for depression (it can cause amajor elevation in blood pressure).

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[top]DL-Phenylalanine (DLPA)


  • combination of synthetic (D) and natural (L) phenylalanine produces endorphins and stimulates their use thus, effective painkiller, often better than the opiate derivatives such as morphine.

  • nonaddictive, nontoxic

  • reverse-tolerance effect (pain relief gets better)

  • strong anti-depressant effect

  • can be combined with other pain-killers with few bad interactions

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[top]L-Tyrosine


  • precursor to norepinephrine and dopamine

  • non-essential amino acid (since PA is converted into it first)

  • has been studied as an effective aid to cocaine withdrawal
  • (see L-phenylalanine)

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[top]L-Tryptophan


  • precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin along with
    B6, niacin, and magnesium

  • (actually immediate precursor to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP)
    which is the precursor to serotonin (5HT))

  • prolongs slow-wave sleep

  • reduces pain sensitivity

  • no effect or increases REMS

  • has some hypnotic effects

  • useful for some types of endogenous depression
    (has been found as useful as imipramine and amitriptyline)

  • aids in reducing anxiety and tension
  • an appetite supressant
  • dosages have been studied up to 15g
  • Major Food Sources:
    Cottage cheese, milk, meat, fish, turkey, bananas,
    dried dates, peanuts, all protein-rich foods.


    _____________________________________

[top]L-Lysine


  • needed for growth and enzyme, hormone, antibody production
  • aids concentration
  • treatment for some sterility problems
  • treatment and prevention for herpes infections
  • aids fatty acid -> energy conversion

    _____________________________________

[top]L-Arginine


  • used to increase sperm counts
  • (semen contains up to 80% of arginine)
  • aids immune response and healing of wounds
  • helps stored fat metabolism
  • helps to tone muscle tissue
  • used for weight-loss in combination with L-ornithine
  • one amino acid required for production of growth hormone

    _____________________________________

[top]L-Ornithine


  • similar to arginine
  • growth hormone (which acts as a fat metabolizer) is
    stimulated to be released by ornithine and arginine.

  • can be used as a slimming technique (while you sleep -
    GH is released by the pituitary gland then)

    _____________________________________

[top]L-Glutamine


  • converted to glutamic acid, the brain's emergency source of
    energy when glucose is in short supply.

  • precursor to the neurotransmitter GABA
  • neutralizes excess ammonia (which can inhibit proper
    brain function)

  • improves intelligence
  • helps to control alcoholism
  • helps to speed ulcer healing
  • alleviates fatigue, depression, impotence,
    schizophrenia, senility

    _____________________________________

[top]L-Aspartic acid


  • ammonia neutralizer
  • a study showed improved stamina and endurance in atheletes

    _____________________________________

[top]L-Cysteine


  • cystine is its stable form
  • antioxidant
  • contains sulfur
  • protects cellular membranes from "free radical damage"
  • prevents alcohol and cigarette smoke damage to the brain
  • stimulant to immune system
  • believed to be good for antiaging
  • effective against copper toxicity (eg. Wilson's disease)
  • protects against X-ray and nuclear radiation
  • warning: may affect insulin effectiveness

    _____________________________________


[top]L-Methionine


  • antioxidant
  • contains sulfur
  • prevents damage of brain cells from toxic heavy metals
  • important in producing neurotransmitters and energy
  • lowers blood level of histamine
    (this may help some types of schizophrenia)

  • combined with choline and folic acid, can prevent some
    types of tumor

  • deficiencies: hair loss, atherosclerosis, cholestorol deposits,
    edema, poor urine processing

    _____________________________________

[top]L-Glycine


  • treatment for poor pituitary functioning
  • supplies creatine which is essential for muscle function
    (effective against muscular dystrophy)

  • treatment for hypoglycemia
  • stimulates glucagon which metabolizes glycogen into glucose
  • antacid
  • treatment for low blood pH
  • treatment for leucine imbalance-causing body odor and halitosis

    _____________________________________

[top]L-Taurine


  • nonessential amino acid
  • aids efficient conduction of electrical impulses
    along nerve pathways

  • anticonvulsant (esp in combo with glutamic, aspartic acids)

    _____________________________________

[top]L-Glutathione


  • tripeptide amino acid made of cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine
  • "triple threat" antiaging
  • antioxidant
  • anti-tumor agent
  • respiratory accelerator in the brain
  • used in the treatment of: allergies, cataracts, diabetes,
    hypoglycemia, arthritis

  • prevents some side effects of chemotherapy and X-ray radiation
  • protects against some harmful side-effects of cigarrette smoke
    and alcohol

    _____________________________________


[top]L-Carnatine


  • newly discovered amino acid
  • aids stored fat -> energy conversion
  • helps: hypoglycemia, reduces angina attacks, diabetes,
    liver disease, kidney disease

  • deficiency causes heart tissue damage



[top]============================




[top]Stacks

(Combinations)

Simple Stack :
1-2 grams piracetam every 8 hours with 5 grams lecithin daily.


Study Stack - Simple :
1-2 grams piracetam every 8 hours / 5 grams lecithin / 10mg Vinpocetine every 8 hours


Advanced Stack :
2 grams piracetam every 8 hours
500 mg aniracetam every 8 hours
1 gram Alpha GPC every 8 hours


Study Stack - advanced :
1.5 grams piracetam every 8 hours
500 mg aniracetam every 8 hours
1.5 grams Alpha GPC every 8 hours
15 mg Vinpocetine every 8 hours
150 mcg Huperzine every 8 hours


Anxiety / Concentration Stack :
500 mg aniracetam every 8 hours
200 mg theanine every 8 hours (plan for one dose prior to a speech or presentation)


After all test are done stack :
500mg Theanine
1.5 grams Phenibut (do not study on phenibut)
5 grams lecithin


Neurotransmitter boosting Formula (AM & PM)
This is basically a neurotransmitter boosting formula and benefits those
who don't have a drug abuse problem too.
AM
L-tyrosine 250 mg.
D,L phenylalanine 125 mg.
Pantothenic acid 25 mg.
PABA 25 mg.
DMAE 25 mg.
Rubidium Cl 25 mg.
Tocopherol acetate 12.5 mg.
Beta carotene 2.5 mg.
Manganese (gluconate) 2.5 mg.
Folic acid 0.1 mg
Copper gluconate .125 mg
Selenium .25 mg.

PM
Niacinamide (ascorbate) 250 mg.
Taurine 50 mg.
Magnesium oxide 50 mg.
Pyridoxine 25 mg.
Niacin 12.5 mg.
Riboflavin 12.5 mg
Zinc 2.5 mg.
Beta carotene 2.5 mg.
Chromium (GTF) .025 mg.
Vitamin B12 .0125 mg.
[top]============================



[top]References


http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=26786

Organized and compiled by: Lukeoca


Contributors: Boltzmann, NeuroChi , Alfa
Created by Alfa, 06-09-2009 at 15:54
Last edited by Boltzmann, 08-04-2013 at 01:45
Last comment by Boltzmann on 08-04-2013 at 01:18
15 Comments, 147,551 Views

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