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Cold Water Extraction of Opioids

The purpose of this wiki article is to provide easy-to-follow procedures on Cold Water Extraction of Opioids to all Drugs-Forum users; ones that you can do at home in order to minimize the risks of using OTC and prescription painkillers. All steps and methods are explained both in detail and summarized throughout. Many people who inquire and perform CWE’s usually have the same questions to ask. This Wiki/FAQ will attempt to address all of these, and more.

Contents


[top]Introduction

Performing Cold Water Extractions is not a hard process. However, since we are dealing with potentially harmful ingredients, all possible precautions should be taken. For the best and safest results, each and every CWE method should be read fully and carefully. That means all of them.

(I have recently done an entire overhaul on this Wiki to make it flow better and easier to read. Please take the time to do so for yours and others health’s sake. -Joben)

Participating in and taking drugs is a lifestyle choice, and should be taken very seriously. One can never gain too much knowledge.

Post Consumption : If you feel sick- extremely sick- immediately contact professional help and call the ambulance! Do not induce vomiting nor try to solve the problem by consuming other drugs! Also very important- do not, under any circumstances, attempt to seek help by posting to Drugs-Forum! Medical help cannot be administered over the internet. Response time will never be fast enough and proper knowledge of the situation can never be conveyed. All DF users will tell you the same thing: get off the forum and call the ambulance.

[top]How Extraction Works

Extraction works because APAP (Acetaminophen ), ibuprofen, and aspirin are hardly soluble in water, especially when cold. Opiates, however, are very soluble in water. (This only partly applies to Ibuprofen.)

Solubility information on APAP:
According to the Merck Chemical Index, APAP is: "Soluble in methanol, ethanol, dimethyl-formamide, ethylene dichloride, acetone, ethyl acetate; slightly soluble in ether; very slightly soluble in cold water, considerably more soluble in hot water; insoluble in petroleum ether, pentane, benzene."

Solubility information on ibuprofen:
According to the Merck Chemical Index, ibuprofen is: "Relatively insoluble in water; very soluble in alcohol, and most organic solvents." The colder the water, the less aspirin dissolves.

Due to the difficulty in obtaining Rx drugs containing enough codeine to be used recreationally, I have included a procedure that allows one to extract the codeine from OTC products to obtain enough of the drug to use recreationally.

This extraction can only be used on OTC products containing either acetaminophen or aspirin (ibuprofen is also possible to extract) in addition to the codeine. There is one exception to this rule. Products containing caffeine can be used with the knowledge that the most of the caffeine contained in the OTC product, will be found in the finished product. This should not matter to most people, but to those with problems in taking caffeine , you have been warned! (See: caffeine removal section)

(I have found that it is better to use products containing aspirin, as opposed to Tylenol, because the filtering process goes more smoothly. And, if one is not allergic to salicilates, aspirin is safer [easier on the liver, etc.]. Given its solubility, you will also end up with far less aspirin than acetaminophen per volume of the product.)

The idea behind the following extraction is that acetaminophen and aspirin are very insoluble in cold water. Codeine phosphate (the most common form of codeine) is very soluble in water; cold water will yield the best results. The following table explains:

TypeSolubility (31C water)Solubility (21C water)
Aspirin1g / 100 ml1g / 300ml
Acetaminophen (Paracetamol)1g / 70 ml1g / 150 ml
Codeine1g / 2.3 ml1g / 0.7 ml

So as you can see, both APAP and aspirin aren't very soluble in 21C water, so if you cool the water to around 10C, the solubility will drop even further. That way you can dissolve 20 tablets in 50ml of warm (not hot) water, cool the water down to 10C, filter the solution and end up with the same amount of codeine as the tablets contained but only a fraction of the original amount of APAP and aspirin . Opiates are very soluble in water. Extraction works because the cold water dissolves opiates but not the APAP, aspirin , or ibuprofen. Also, if cold, the aspirin will change its status and become crystals, which are caught in the filter.

It should be noted that because most of the caffeine (or other ingredients; look at your product and the list of chemicals on this site) will remain in the finished product, using large amounts of tablets in the following procedure will result in large amount of caffeine, etc., in the finished product. For example, the use of 20 tablets with 15mg Caffeine may result in about 300mg of caffeine in the finished product. (15mg/tablets * 20 tablets) There are strong side effects with all of the other ingredients and one has to be aware of these.

One can use less opioids and get same effects by potentiating the effects, see the link list.

[top]Extraction Manuals

Here are a few manuals- some better, some faster, some more careful, some more detailed- but they all work. They are all very similar, but each different in its own particular, special way. The author recommends that if one wants to be on the absolute safe side and also have a "near perfect" result, he/she should read the entire thread, or at least a few manuals and the rest of the thread. The ‘other chemicals’ and ‘dosages’ are also very important to study.

Listed below are many Cold Water Extraction manuals. They are all very similar, but each different in its own particular way. To gain the most knowledge on the subject, one should not only read the two ‘short’ CWE techniques, but also the ‘detailed’ ones. It is recommended they also view the ‘do's and don’ts’ list.

[top]Crushing Tablets and Pills

For the sake of Cold Water Extractions, one should prefer capsules, as they contain less fillers and don't have to be crushed. They are also much easier to dissolve. However, if one has only access to tablets, he/she has a multitude of options on how to crush them.

Listed below are a few methods on how to crush pills while minimizing powder loss. One should always be careful though, as some tablet pieces tend to ‘fly-away’ when initially crushed. It is recommended that prior to smashing, break apart tablets with hands into the smallest possible segments.

· Place the tablets in an envelope, fold it shut, and then using a large rolling pin to smash them. This makes it near impossible to lose powder.

· Place two pills in a spoon and then use another spoon over top and apply pressure.

· A simple mortar and pestle can do the trick.

· If one has the resources, use a ball mill with steel crushing media.

· A coffee grinder used for only five to six seconds will sufficiently blend up to 72 tablets into fine talc, making them easily dissolvable.

· Personally, my best results came using a large knife sharpening stone to pummel the tablets. After the main crushing is performed, use a thick, round mug to roll on the pills turning the tiny segments into a fine powder.

A thread that may provide further information can be found here: How to Crush Pills (Codeine)

[top]Quick Step-by-Step CWE-Technique (5 Minutes)

The following technique is proof of a perfect working method that can also be done in a relatively short period of time. Apart from cooling the water (which takes around 20-30 minutes), this process will take about five minutes max.

This is a quick and easy way to do the CWE. Lots of other guides take the long way around and make it seem a bit harder than it actually is. This is intended to be a brief explanation, as it will not go into very detailed chemistry.

Simplified Overview-

GOAL: To remove acetaminophen (APAP), ibuprofen, aspirin, etc., from tablets containing opiates, like codeine

HOW: Crush tablets; dissolve powder in water; strain through a filter

Step One- Crush Tablets into a Fine Powder while Minimizing Powder Loss

Put tablets into a thick Ziploc bag. (You can choose to put this inside another Ziploc bag for extra leakage protection.) Use an object to crush the tablets to a fine powder without puncturing the Ziploc bags. These can include but are not limited to: a sharpening stone (for knives), a brick, a round glass cup, or a hammer.

Step Two- Dissolve the Crushed Powder into Warm/Hot Water

Get hot water from the tap- but not too hot! In between warm and hot is perfect. Don't use boiling water unless you want to destroy the codeine.

Put it in a container or bowl with a wide surface area (cools faster) and add the powder you crushed. (If you’re using a Ziploc, some powder may stick to the plastic, but I think it's negligible.)

The amount of water used should usually be 3/4 of a cup. Start with that and experiment. It's better to add too much water than too little, or it won't filter properly later.

Step Three- Let Mixture Sit and Cool to Room Temperature (10-20 minutes)

Be careful about cooling the mixture too quickly, as it may destroy some codeine within. Leave it sit on the counter for a period of time, until it is at or near room temperature. (It doesn’t have to be perfect.)

Step Four- Move the Container into the Freezer until COLD

This is where the magic happens. Leave the mixture sit in the freezer (without a lid) until it is extremely cold to the touch. Be very careful! The key is to get the solution as cold as possible yet crucial to keep it from freezing or icing up. Pay close attention!

Step Five- Filtering (Almost there!)

First, place a pre-wet coffee filter over the top of a Solo cup and secure it with a rubber band or something similar.

(One glass and filter will normally do the job, however, if you wish to do this as quickly as possible and yield the best results, you may choose to use two to three cups equipped with a filter. That’s filtering at three times the speed!)

Slowly pour the solution from the freezer into the cup(s) and wait!

Step Six - The Final Product

When it looks like the filters aren’t dripping anymore, and there is nothing left to filter through, you will be left with a dense, marshmallow-like substance.

Some people choose to squeeze the contents of the old filters through a new filter to save any remaining moisture. Be careful not to spill any residue into the liquid solution, though.

At this point some people add a little water to the leftover mush and re-filter it, but I don’t think it’s necessary or worth the time. We’re now ready to consume.

Step Seven - Drink it!

The final product should be very clear (like water), or just slightly cloudy. Most (if not all) of the APAP, ibuprofen, and/or aspirin have been successfully removed.

The remaining water is extremely bitter. Personally, I suffer through it and drink it straight, just to get it over with. Most people drink it with something sweet… very sweet. Mixing Kool-Aid packages will cover some of the bitter taste. Bottoms up!

For added effects, see: Opioid Potentiators

[top]Quick Step-by-Step CWE Manual (With Pictures)



Step One
-

The product that I will be using for this manual is shown above. It’s a generic painkiller/cough relief/overall well-being product, available (in different brands of course) OTC in most countries. Capsules work great because the codeine is easy to extract. If you begin with tablets, crush them to a fine powder.



Step Two-

You can see this product contains paracetamol (acetaminophen), aspirin, and Klorfeniramin, which is an antihistamine. These should NOT be in your final product. For best results, the less of these ingredients already in the product (pre-extraction), the better. Obviously, the less material needing filtered will make the process go by quicker and lower the chances of any remaining in the final solution. (I will refer to the paracetamol, aspirin, and Klorfeniramin blend as PAK in future references [for this manual exclusively].)

Side note: Klorfeniramin in low doses doesn’t pose too much of a problem, but never think about consuming this before getting proper information on it! That goes for any drug for that matter! (Lots of information available on Drugs Forum)



Step Three -

The following procedure will work best by using coffee filters. If they are unavailable or unobtainable, (as in some Middle-Eastern countries), do not use a t-shirt. The spaces between the threads are too wide and will allow dangerous ingredients to flow through. Use good judgment. For this example, we will be using coffee filters.

Fill a cup with warm (not hot!) water, and dump the crushed tablets from Step One in. Stir until completely dissolved. You may have some residue rise to the top, even though you’ve stirred vigorously. That’s okay; it will be filtered out later. At this point, the water should look ‘snowy’. To what degree will depend on the amount of tablets you use.

For this example, we are using 30 capsules containing 10mg codeine and 300mg PAK.



Step Four -

Once you’ve stirred the mixture very well, place the cup in the freezer. Wait 20-25 minutes (will differ by freezers and settings) until water is cold. Very cold. Be very careful! The key is to get the solution as cold as possible yet crucial to keep it from freezing or icing up. Pay close attention!

At these temperatures, the PAK becomes thick and sinks to the bottom of the cup, thus becoming easier to filter.





Step Five -

Filter the solution.

It is recommended you slightly wet the filter before using it. (Not doing it can cause this stage to go even slower and heighten the risk for filter tearing!) You can either secure the filter to a separate cup using a rubber band, or like the diagram shows above, hang the filter above a wide bowl. Now that’s ingenuity!

Now, pour the mixture into the filter. Do this slowly! Filter paper isn’t exactly the sturdiest material made, and the risk of tearing is always prevalent. If a tear does occur, re-filter the solution! Don’t take any chances.



(This photo was taken after the first filtration of the mixture. For this manual, there will be multiple filtering [personal choice] and as you can see, there is already a significant amount of material left behind.)



-------
It’s finally done! Wasn’t that fast? The final product should look like the image above.

Great job!



Once completed, the solution should look similar to the liquid shown in the photo above. The codeine will sometimes make the mixture cloudy, not to mention any PAK or colorants that may have made their way through the filter. If you are unsure about this, you can always repeat the filtration. (For some, a tiny bit of ‘PAK-snow’ on the bottom of the glass is nothing to worry about.)

If you are paranoid about the PAK, but don’t want to repeat the filter stage, place the glass in the fridge so the rest of the PAK will sink. When you finally drink it, stop before sipping the contents of the very bottom.

Enjoy!

[top]Detailed CWE Manual

A. Methods of Filtration
-Your chosen method of filtration will greatly affect how much PCM/APAP , ibuprofen, aspirin, (or any other ingredient) is present in your end product. The best working methods are shown below:
1. Lab Grade Filters
a. These may not be readily available to most, but can be obtained from someone you may know at a local school or university.
b. Aside from those places, there are plenty of companies who will sell these products to individuals. Check your yellow pages or search the internet for distributors.
2. Coffee Filters
a. These will work almost as well as the lab grade variety, and will filter considerably faster. The only downside is accuracy.

b. Some people recommend filtering numerous times (two to three), but it isn’t always necessary. Use your own personal judgment.
B. The Technical Stuff
- How you perform the CWE in conjunction with your level of caution and cleanliness will affect how ‘clean’ your final product will be. Below are some tips on the general method and uses of equipment.
1. Crushing Your Pills
a. For best results, use a pill crusher.
b. If one is not available, use something enclosed/sealed.
i. Keep from getting white powder all over your hand and work area.
ii. Keep everything clean!
c. Crush to a fine powder. The finer, the better it will dissolve.
d. (There is a section earlier in the Wiki with various ideas on how to accomplish this.)
2. Dissolving Your Crushed Pills
o This is where many opinions will differ. Unless you’re looking for the highest possible yield from your pills, follow these steps:
a. Fill a glass or solo cup about half full with warm (not hot) water. Keep the temperature around 30 degrees Centigrade. (86 degrees Fahrenheit)
i. If a great amount of pills are being used, use more water. Use your best judgment. Don’t be afraid to use too much. This is much safer. You can always change it up next time you perform a CWE.
b. Carefully pour the crushed pills into the cup of water.
c. Stir vigorously until completely dissolved.
i. Some material may rise to the surface no matter how much you stir. Not much you can do about it. It won’t cause any harm.
d. Place mixture into freezer until it is extremely cold.
i. DO NOT let the mixture freeze. Get it as cold as possible.
3. Filtering (Finally!)
o There are many methods of filtering. For this procedure, we will be using a funnel draining directly into a cup. However, there are many ways possible. Use your imagination, but always keep it safe and proper!
a. Fold your chosen filter into the correct shape.
b. Make sure your filter fits like a glove into the funnel.
c. Pour your mixture in slowly, ensuring none escapes the filter.
i. Pour all material in, including what has already clumped together. It will take longer, but ensure more codeine content.
1. If very paranoid, ignore the above instruction.
d. Once complete, remove the filter carefully, paying close attention that no unfiltered content makes its way into the codeine water.
e. If you wish to, repeat filtration.
f. Throw away all ‘sour’ material.
4. Drink!

[top]Another Detailed CWE Manual

1. Obtain a quantity of tablets containing codeine. Check to see if they contain anything other than codeine, caffeine, acetaminophen, or aspirin. If they do, and you aren’t sure about whether it will be a problem or not, your best bet is not to use them. If you still wish to, use the list of ingredients in the latter section of this wiki or search the forums of DF to be sure they are filterable.

Measure out your desired amount of codeine. For example:
64 mg = 8 tablets @ 8 mg per tablet
You may want to add two extra tablets as it is likely you will lose some codeine in the process. As you become more experienced with this procedure, you will be able to obtain approximately 95% of the codeine attempted to be extracted.

Crush the tablets into a fine powder while minimizing powder loss.

2. Now we need water in which to dissolve the crushed tablets. Choose how much water you use according to how many tablets are being dissolved. Approximately 40ml will work for 20 tablets. I would suggest you don’t go over 50ml for the same amount.

Make sure you are using warm/hot water for dissolving. Boiling water will destroy codeine. Pour crushed powder into the cup of water and stir until the vast majority of it is dissolved.

Not all of the powder will dissolve. Some fillers are water-insoluble and not all of the PCM/APAP, aspirin, and/or ibuprofen will dissolve either, (which is exactly what we want!).

3. Place the cup containing the solution in a cold bath. I use some ice cubes and water in a large bowl. Stir the mixture occasionally until the temperature drops to about 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit) or lower. You won’t need a thermometer to measure the temperature, just make sure it’s cold. Very cold.

If you wish you speed this up, you can use less water to dissolve the crushed tablets, and add ice chips to cool the mixture. (Don’t add so much ice you drastically increase the volume of the mixture.)

Instead of a cooling in a bath, you may also choose to cool the solution in the freezer. Pay close attention to make sure the mixture does not begin to freeze. This will ruin the final product.

4. Filter the solution by whatever means you wish. Coffee filters work well, but lab filters will work the best. Make sure you don’t end up with obvious solids in the filtered solution. This process will take about one hour. (With aspirin, this will only take about 20-30 minutes.)

You may also want to rinse the solids left over in the filter with some ice-water to extract any remaining codeine.

5. Drink and enjoy! The solution will be very bitter, so I mix a little Kool-Aid powder into it. The taste isn’t horrible; it is similar to sucking on a lemon.

6. Sit back, wait, and enjoy! Because the codeine is already dissolved in the water, it only needs to be absorbed. Whereas normally, in tablet form, the codeine must take time to dissolve to later be absorbed.

Because of this, effects should be noticeable within 15 minutes.

Note: There are some who wish to evaporate the mixture to obtain pure codeine in powder form. I don’t suggest you do this unless you are willing to wait a while. The Merck index warns that codeine is sensitive to heat and light. For that reason, if you wish to evaporate the mixture, do it without heat, and shield the solution form all forms of UV light.


[top]Do's & Don'ts by Darkglobe

Do’s
- Make sure you’re meticulous with hygiene. Many chemical processes go tits up due to carelessness.

- Use a sensible amount of water
o Too little, and it will taste even more unpleasant and you may have too little water for the codeine to properly dissolve.
o Too much, and you may end up with PCM/APAP finding its way into the codeine solution.
- Use a suitable filter, and use it properly!
o Improper filtration = to put it bluntly, imminent death. Or at least imminent pain. Probably both.
Don’ts
- ‘Guess’. Don’t even ‘guesstimate’. Do not, under any circumstances do this for any measurement or quantity. I cannot stress how important a bit of caution can be for your health and well-being.

- Get impatient. My friend was guilty of this one. He couldn’t wait for the solution to cool in order for the PCM/APAP to precipitate out of the solution. It ended up in him having his stomach pumped. I was there in the hospital with him, and I can safely say it did not look pleasant.

Conclusion

Be careful, be methodical, and be happy. Let SWIM enjoy his/her drug use as safely as possible. Think about it- if the substances have risks, you don’t want to add more.

Paracetamol and Acetaminophen are not friendly substances!

[top]The Results/Final Product



Above is an example of how the final product should appear. Sometimes slightly cloudy, but very similar to water. As mentioned before, if the liquid is too cloudy, (or you feel it isn’t filtered enough), you may need to perform another filtration. Some cloudiness may be present from ingredients other than medicines. These may be fillers, dyes, or possibly residue on the glass preceding the CWE.

One must know that the majority of times your final product will still contain trace amounts of paracetamol (acetaminophen), aspirin, ibuprofen, etc. In most cases, the amount is miniscule and poses no harm to the user.
1. There are two choices as far as how you can exploit the codeine in the final product. The easiest and most exercised method is simply drinking the ‘elixir’. It will taste extremely bitter when drunk alone. Experiment with ways to improve the taste (then share the ideas!) or muster up the courage to down it with a few great, big gulps.
2. One may also choose to evaporate the water to reap only the codeine powder. This works best when poured into a wide and shallow dish. Large glass cookware would be the nominal choice.
Your goal is to evaporate the water out of the mixture, allowing the codeine to dry and adhere to the glass. This codeine can then be scraped from the sides and compiled into mass amount. Some people will use a small flame or heat source to speed up the evaporation process. Be very careful! Great amounts of heat can cause the break-down of opioids; this will occur at about 150 degrees Celsius and higher. Any type of UV exposure will also break down codeine, so be weary of evaporating it in open light.

[top]Quick-Links & Further Information


Dosage List of Opioids (starting dosage in this post in the chemicals list)

A Big CWE Thread

Extracting Caffeine from CWE/Codeine combination

How to Crush Pills (Codeine)

Codeine-Basics Thread

Saving Money by Potentiating the Effects of Opioids Careful! If taken with APAP this will also be potentiated and thus harder on the liver. See: APAP Poisoning section.

Extracting DXM from Syrup

Injecting Basics and Dangers of IVing Pills

[top]Pharmacology and Drug Interactions of Codeine

In order to take full advantage of codeine, it is helpful to be familiar with some relevant pharmacology: CYP2D6

The body converts codeine into morphine (~10%) by using the ‘P450 cytochrome pathway’. The most utilized of these is cytochrome 2d6 (cyp2d6). Unfortunately, cyp2d6 is missing in about 7% of the white population, and its manifestation is quite variable in the rest. Individuals who inherited a cyp2d6 deficiency will get many of the adverse effects associated with codeine but little euphoria. If codeine doesn't seem to work for you, this may be why.

Some drugs also interfere with cyp2d6. Prime among these are the SSRIs, with the exception of Zoloft. The most potent inhibitor is paroxetine (Paxil), followed by fluoxetine (Prozac). If you are taking an SSRI, you will probably experience a markedly decreased euphoria when using codeine. (Paxil has a half life of only 24 hours, so not taking it for a few days will do miracles; the half life of Prozac is seven days.)

Finally, codeine itself is a cyp2d6 inhibitor. This means that taking the whole dose at the exact same time will probably give you the biggest sense of euphoria. It is a waste of codeine to re-dose every 20 to 30 minutes. You will not experience a greater ‘high’ by doing so.

[top]Codeine: First Use & Dosage (Beginning and Medicinal)

One should also check the codeine thread and dosage thread; this being just a basic introduction.

Codeine is an excellent opiate to start experimenting with. A proper dose at which to begin using is in the 30 to 60 mg range. This dosage will produce quite pleasurable feelings of euphoria, while low enough to keep the adverse effects at a minimum. Some individuals may be allergic to codeine. If you have never used it before, do not surpass the previously stated dosage. Wait and see how it affects you; it is dangerous to begin consuming high doses.

For best results, take the drug on an empty stomach. If nausea or stomach aching is experienced, or if you become hungry, eat something small. On an empty stomach the effects will become noticeable within 15 minutes (yet depends on the dose). It also must be noted that like most other drugs, some experience is required before the full effects can be noticed and enjoyed.

The effects will usually begin with a slight sedation, and a feeling of warmth coming over your body. Muscular relaxation is also quite noticeable. The subjective effects are quite hard to describe beyond the word euphoria. The sedation associated with codeine is quite a lot less than that experienced with morphine or other stronger opiates. A strong feeling of contentment is usually also experienced. Most people enter a phase where you become quite content and tend to lose interest in their surroundings. A heavy feeling in the limbs also becomes quite noticeable. This will peak at about one hour with the strongest effects slowly tapering off after two hours.

Codeine is mainly used as a pain reliever, but is also used for the relief of a non-productive cough, and as an anti-diarrheal agent. 120mg of codeine administered subcutaneously (injected under the skin) provides pain relief equal to 10mg of morphine administered by the same route. Doses used to relieve cough or diarrhea range from 5mg to 30mg.

[top]Codeine: Administration & Effects on the Body and Mind

One should also check the codeine thread and dosage thread; this being just a basic introduction

Codeine is absorbed quickly from the GI tract and its first pass through the liver results in very little loss of the drug. This contrasts with morphine in which over 90% of the drug is metabolized in the first pass through the liver resulting in a considerable loss of potency when administered orally. This is why codeine is a common opiate in the relief of pain; the ease of oral administration.

Codeine can be administered by many routes, this includes, SC, IM (intramuscularly), as an enema, and orally. Note: codeine can't be administered safely by IV (intravenously) injection as it can result in pulmonary edema (fluid in lungs), facial swelling and other life threatening complications.

Codeine is converted to morphine in the brain. This of course will result in a positive result in a drug test for the opiates. It is not known whether or not the drugs heroin, morphine or codeine can be separately determined on a drug test. In other words, it isn't likely that the drug tester can determine which of the three above drugs you have taken; he just knows you've taken one or more of them.

Some common side effects from codeine include drowsiness, light-headedness, dry mouth, urinary retention (difficulty in urination), constipation and of course, euphoria. Adverse effects can include itchiness (common), confusion, nausea and vomiting. The nausea experienced with codeine is less common and less intense than that experienced with the stronger opiates such as morphine. A tip to all those using opiates, lying down does wonders to the nausea. If you ever experience nausea on opiates it is different than the commonly experienced nausea as it is more of a light-headed feeling. Lying down will almost always relieve the nausea in a couple minutes, which after you can attempt to stand up again.

Note: Addiction to codeine is possible. Tolerance is also seen with chronic use. Although the withdrawal is minimal with codeine, it is not a fun time. Please be cautious in your use of the drug.

The LD50 (lethal dose for %50) is 800mg in the average person. Death from codeine, unlike most opiates, includes restlessness, seizures, and eventually death from respiratory arrest. [Some sources indicate that the lower-end LD50 may be around 500mg, so doses above 450mg are in the red zone.]

[top]Your Product

If one has a product containing Opioids (i.e. Codeine ) plus PCM/APAP/Ibuprofen/Aspirin, he/she should always overview exactly what and how much is present in the medication. The best choice is an opioid in conjunction with PCM/APAP or aspirin, as these are the quickest and easiest to filter. Also present are colorants, which do no harm, as well as fillers (for tablets) and other things; one should check on all.

In general, capsules will yield the best results being that they contain less filler and only contain the wanted chemicals and the filterable chemicals. (See: Chemicals list)

If possible, everything else should be avoided and/or one should carefully consider what he/she is doing to their body. Always check the facts and information.

Possible other Active Ingredients:


Other Inactive Ingredients
  • Colorants
  • Fillers
  • See also: Chemicals List


[top]Chemical Properties of the Ingredients

Although some of the chemicals can be taken safely up to a certain amount one should almost always perform a Cold Water Extraction. Since one doesn’t know their individual limits and other factors involved, filtering everything out nearly removes all risks involved and promotes good health! These chemicals also interact with each other, yet the results of this cannot always be foretold.

Dosages-

The listed dosages for opioids are starting points for therapeutic usage. One should consider his/her tolerance and generally start as low as possible and work their way up.

The listed dosages for the other ingredients are maximum one-time amounts. Do not take that amount on a regular basis; even one-time dosages can be considered high-risk.

[top]Melting Point

The melting point of a crystalline solid is defined as the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid; or the other way around. Although the phrase would suggest a specific temperature and is commonly and incorrectly used as such in most textbooks and literature, most crystalline compounds actually melt over a range of a few degrees or less. At the precise melting point the solid and liquid phases exist in equilibrium.

[top]Opioids

[top]Codeine

Melting Point : 154-156 °C (309-312 °F)
Boiling Point: 250 °C (482 °F)
Soluble in : Water - (1g/ 2.3mL at 31°C) and (1g/ 150mL at 21°C)
Insoluble in:
Therapeutic dosage: Starts at: 0.5 - 2mg per kg of bodyweight
- Because codeine needs to be metabolized to an active form, there is a ceiling effect around 400-450 mg per intake. This low ceiling further contributes to codeine being less addictive than other opiates. Roughly 5-10% of codeine will be converted to morphine, with the remainder either free, conjugated to form codeine-6-glucuronide (~70%), or converted to norcodeine (~10%) and hydromorphone (~1%)
Cold Water Extraction -Codeine will remain in the water after filtration if performed correctly.

Other Extraction Methods (for Different Forms and Chemicals):
Codeine monohydrate
o One gram dissolves in the following: 120mL water at room temperature, 60mL water at 80°; 2mL alcohol, 1.2mL hot alcohol; 13mL benzene; 18 ml ether; and 0.5 ml chloroform.
o Freely soluble in: amyl alcohol, methanol, and diluted acids.
o Almost insoluble in: petroleum ether or in solutions of alkali hydroxides.
Codeine Hydrochloride dehydrate
o One gram dissolves in the following: 20mL water, 1mL boiling water, and 180mL alcohol.
Codeine Sulfate trihydrate
o One gram dissolves in the following: 30ml water, 6.5mL water at 80°, 1300mL alcohol.
o Insoluble in: chloroform and ether.
Codeine phosphate
o One gram dissolves in 4mL of water at 20°C.
Codeine-Basics

[top]Hydrocodone

Melting Point : 198 ° C (388° F)
Boiling Point :
Soluble in : Water, alcohol
Insoluble in :
Therapeutic dosage : Starts at 0.1 mg per kg bodyweight.
Cold Water Extraction: Hydrocodone remain in the water after filtration if performed correctly

Other Extraction Methods (for Different Forms and Chemicals):
Hydrocodone Bitartrate hemipentahydrate
o One gram dissolves in: 16mL water, 150g 95% ethanol.
o Almost insoluble in: ether and chloroform.
Hydrocodone Basics & Experiences

[top]Oxycodone

Melting Point : 270-272° C (518-522° F)
Boiling Point :
Soluble in : Water
Slightly soluble in : alcohol
Insoluble in :
Therapeutic dosage : Starts at 0.075-0.1 mg per kg bodyweight
Cold Water Extraction : Oxycodone will remain in the water after filtration if performed correctly
Oxycodone Hydrochloride
- One gram dissolves in 10ml water.
Oxycodone Basics & Experiences

[top](Dextro)propoxyphene

Melting Point :
Boiling Point :
Soluble in : Water, alcohol, chloroform, acetone.
Insoluble in : benzene, ether.
Therapeutic dosage :
Cold Water Extraction:
- Dextropropoxyphene hydrochloride will remain in the water after filtration if performed correctly
- Propoxyphene napsylate is not water soluble and will not pass through the filter
Other Extraction Methods (for Different Forms and Chemicals):
Propoxyphene napsylate
o Some believe it is soluble in water, while others believe it is not
o 100mg propoxyphene napsylate is equivalent to 65mg propoxyphene hydrochloride.
(Dextro)propoxyphene Basics & Experiences

[top]Heroin / Diacetylmorphine

Melting Point :
Boiling Point :
Soluble in : water, chloroform, alcohol, ether, and alkalies
Insoluble in : ether
Therapeutic dosage :
Cold Water Extraction : Heroin will remain in the water after filtration if performed correctly

Other Extraction Methods (for Different Forms and Chemicals):
Diacethylmorphine Base
o One gram dissolves in: 1.5mL chloroform, 31mL alcohol, 100mL ether, 1700mL water.
o Slightly soluble in: ammonia or sodium carbonate solution.
o Soluble in alkalies.
o Decomposes by boiling with water.
Diacethylmorphine Hydrochloride monohydrate
o One gram dissolves in: 2mL water, 11mL alcohol.
o Insoluble in: ether.
Heroin Basics

[top]Morphine

Melting Point :
Boiling Point :
Soluble in : water, alcohol, benzene, ether, chloroform, amyl alcohol, methanol, and dilute acids
Insoluble in :
Therapeutic dosage :
Cold Water Extraction : Morphine will remain in the water after filtration if performed correctly

Other Extraction Methods (for Different Forms and Chemicals):
Morphine monohydrate -
o One gram dissolves in: 120mL water, 60mL water at 80°, 2mL alcohol, 1.2mL hot alcohol, 13mL benzene, 18mL ether, 0.5mL chloroform
o Freely soluble in: amyl alcohol, methanol, and dilute acids.
o Almost insoluble in: petroleum ether or in solutions of alkali hydroxides.
Morphine Hydrochloride dehydrate
o One gram dissolves in: 20mL water, 1mL boiling water, 180mL alcohol.
Morphine Sulphate trihydrate
o One gram dissolves in: 30mL water, 6.5mL water at 80°, 1300mL alcohol.
o Insoluble in: chloroform or ether.
Morphine Basics

[top]NSAIDS: Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs & PCM/APAP

(The "Other" Painkillers in Many OTC Products)

[top]Paracetamol / Acetominaphen

Melting Point : 169 °C (336 °F)
Boiling point: Not applicable; PCM/APAP will decompose
Soluble in:
water (0.1-0.5 g/100mL at 22°C mg/mL [20 °C]), methanol, ethylene dichloride, acetone, ethyl acetate
Slightly insoluble in : ether
Insoluble in : petroleum ether, pentane, and benzene
Therapeutic Dosage: The highest level that a person can take at once will differ with each individual; this being true with every drug. If one does decide to use products containing these ingredients, they are advised to do so with caution. It is recommended they begin with a low dose, perhaps around 500mg to 750mg. Once accustomed to taking it, try not to exceed 1000mg to 1500mg per dosage, and never 4000mg within a 24 hour period.
Cold Water Extraction : Filtration is possible by the method of extraction using cold water. When properly filtered, the PCM/APAP will be separated from the codeine; considerably more in warm water than cold when initially mixed.

(The information below is very important!)
- Side-effects : Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) taken in high doses can be potentially lethal. Due to the wide availability of it, there is a large potential for toxicity and overdose. Without timely treatment, overdose can lead to liver failure and death within a matter of days. It is a slow, extremely painful death.
- Paracetamol toxicity is, by far, the most common cause of acute liver failure in both the United States and United Kingdom. It is sometimes used in suicide attempts by those unaware of the prolonged time course and high morbidity (likelihood of significant illness) associated with paracetamol-induced toxicity in survivors.
Dangers of Potentiating with White Grapefruit Juice
- White Grapefruit Juice is an inhibitor of CYP3A4, which is a minor metabolizer of hydrocodone and a major metabolizer of acetaminophen. This means that the degree to which plasma concentrations of acetaminophen increase would be much greater than the degree to which plasma levels of hydrocodone would increase; thus the risk of liver toxicity is made higher.

[top]Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic acid)

Melting point : 138-140° C (280-284° F)
Boiling point: 140° C (284° F)
Soluble in: Water 10 mg/mL
Insoluble in: ?
Therapeutic Dosage :
Cold Water Extraction: Filtration is possible by the method of extraction using cold water. When properly filtered, the Aspirin will be separated from the codeine; considerably more in warm water than cold when initially mixed.

Acetylsalicylic acid
- One gram dissolves in: 300mL water at 25°, in 100mL water at 37°, in 5mL alcohol, 17mL chloroform, and 10-15mL ether.
- Less soluble in: anhydrous ether.
- Decomposes by: boiling it in water or when dissolved in solutions of alkali hydroxides and carbonates.
(Inorganic salts of acetylsalicylic acid are soluble in water (especially the Ca salt, q.v.), but are decomposed quickly.)
(The information below is very important!)
- High Dosage : The toxic dose of aspirin is generally considered greater than 150mg per kg of body mass. Moderate toxicity occurs at doses up to 300mg/kg, severe toxicity occurs between 300 to 500mg/kg, and a potentially lethal dose is greater than 500mg/kg. This is the equivalent of many dozens of the common 325mg tablets, depending on body weight. However, children cannot tolerate as much aspirin per unit body weight as adults can.
- Side-effects : Aspirin overdose has potentially serious consequences, sometimes leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with mild intoxication frequently have nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, tinnitus, and dizziness. More significant symptoms occur in more severe poisonings and include hyperthermia, tachypnea, respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia, hallucinations, confusion, seizure, cerebral edema, and coma. The most common cause of death following an aspirin overdose is cardiopulmonary arrest usually due to pulmonary edema.
For more info, see: poisoning section

[top]Ibuprofen

Melting Point : 76°C (169 °F)
Boiling Point:
Soluble in : organic solvents
Insoluble in : water
Therapeutic Dosage : 1200mg of ibuprofen is the maximum standard dose for a day. In medical practice, doses of 3200mg can be used reportedly.
Cold Water Extraction: Possible to filter out, but not as easy & efficient as Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) & Aspirin.

(The information below is very important!)
- High Dosage : High doses involve a whole plethora of nasty side effects ranging from gastrointestinal ulceration to diarrhea.
- Side-effects: Human response in cases of overdose ranges from absence of symptoms to fatal outcome in spite of intensive care treatment. Most symptoms are an excess of the pharmacological action of ibuprofen and include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, dizziness, headache, tinnitus, and nystagmus. Rarely more severe symptoms such as gastrointestinal bleeding, seizures, metabolic acidosis, hyperkalaemia, hypotension, bradycardia, tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, coma, hepatic dysfunction, acute renal failure, cyanosis, respiratory depression, and cardiac arrest have been reported.
For more info, see: poisoning section

[top]Other Ingredients Possibly Present

If using the CWE method with tablets/capsules containing the following ingredients, one should be aware that these may alter the effects of opioids. Because of this, severe side effects are perfectly possible; in worst case scenarios, an OD can occur.

[top]Caffeine

Melting point : 237 °C (Non-equilibrium, Superheated; Caffeine 'sublimes'- goes from solid to gas, no liquid phase)
Boiling point: 178 °C
Soluble in: Water (22 mg/ 1mL [25 °C]), (180 mg/ 1mL [80 °C]), (670 mg/ 1mL [100 °C])
- Solubility in water is increased by alkali benzoates, cinnamates, citrates or salicylates.
Insoluble in : ?
Therapeutic Dosage :
Cold Water Extraction: When using this method to remove caffeine, one must be prepared to wait a good amount of time and do not rush the process. Studying the chemicals and subject beforehand is recommended. Take an ample amount of time and be careful.

Other Extraction Methods (for Different Forms and Chemicals):
- One gram dissolves in: 46mL water, 5.5mL water at 80°, 1.5 L boiling water, 66mL alcohol, 22mL alcohol at 60°, 50mL acetone, 5.5mL chloroform, 530mL ether, 100mL benzene, and 22mL boiling benzene.
- Freely soluble in: pyrrole, in tetrahydrofuran containing about 4% water, and ethyl acetate.
- Slightly soluble: in petr ether.
(The information below is very important!)
- High Dosage : Though achieving the lethal dose with caffeine would be exceptionally difficult with regular coffee, there have been reported deaths from overdosing on caffeine pills; with serious symptoms of overdose requiring hospitalization occurring from as little as 2 grams of caffeine. One should judge for him/herself whether or not they have a tolerance to caffeine. In theory everything above 300mg constitutes an OD, but can be higher in reality. One should not go a lot further! To check tolerance levels, one can look up caffeine contents in the following database: http://www.energyfiend.com/the-caffeine-database/
- Side effects : Altered effects of other drugs consumed (i.e. opioids), nervousness, irritability, anxiety, tremulousness, muscle twitching (hyperreflexia), insomnia, headaches, respiratory alkalosis, and heart palpitations.
o An acute overdose of caffeine, usually in excess of 250 milligrams, can result in an over stimulation of the central nervous system called caffeine intoxication. It may include restlessness, nervousness, excitement, insomnia, flushing of the face, increased urination, gastrointestinal disturbance, muscle twitching, a rambling flow of thought and speech, irritability, irregular or rapid heartbeat, and psychomotor agitation.
o In cases of much larger overdoses, mania, depression, lapses in judgment, disorientation, loss of social inhibition, delusions, hallucinations, psychosis, rhabdomyolysis, and death may occur.
o In cases of extreme overdose, death can result.
The Combined Snorting Caffeine Thread – On the subject of insufflation, but also includes other useful information about the effects of caffeine.
[top]Removing Caffeine
Upon searching, there seems to be several methods. Each should be performed with the utmost patience and attention. One should still be careful though, especially if using any solvents such as acetone. For more information, a thread is available: http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=44769

Different Methods for the Removal of Caffeine:

Activated Carbon Method:

Prior to this step, a Cold Water Extraction should have already been performed. Following this, simply filter the solution through Activated Carbon. This should be available at any local pet shop for a low price. Be sure to rinse the carbon prior to filtering as to avoid turning the water black! One may use a permanent coffee filter, yet any small screen strainer will work. Dump the solution cup to cup, (or however you so choose), for several minutes making multiple passes through the carbon. By doing so, you will succeed in creating a caffeine-free solution!

Not only will the carbon filter out caffeine, but can remove any remaining traces of APAP that might be present. It is recommended that the AC filtering only be performed when caffeine is present, and not as a way to help remove APAP/PCM.

Filtering Using Solvents:

Your product may have different amounts of the following substances, but it shouldn’t be of great importance. Stay on the safe side and calculate it up or follow the manual below. For the examples shown, the product used will be AC&C.
  • 8mg codeine phosphate (1.6g codeine phosphate / 200ct)
  • 15mg caffeine (3g caffeine / 200ct)
  • 325mg aspirin (75g aspirin / 200ct)
  • 127mg junk (25.4g / 200ct)

Read carefully.
- 200ct uncrushed AC&C added to 600ml beaker (net 95g). Hot water was added to 550ml mark. Stirred every 30 minutes (3). Cooled in fridge for 4h.
o 360ml decanted to 2nd beaker.
- 190ml left in sludge layer. (65% of 1.6g codeine extracted.)
- 200ml hot water added to 600ml beaker. Stirred 5min. Cooled in fridge for 4h.
o Decanted 200ml to 2nd beaker. (18% of 1.6g codeine extracted.)
- 190ml hot water added to 600ml beaker. Stirred 5min. Cooled in fridge for 4h.
o Decanted 190ml to 2nd beaker. (9% of 1.6g codeine extracted.)
This means that 92% of the total codeine/caffeine was extracted into a net volume of 750ml. (1.47g codeine, 2.74g caffeine.) What remains in the beaker is mostly junk & aspirin.
- Reduced volume in 2nd beaker to 150mL by boiling.
The room will fill with the mild smell of vinegar as some of the aspirin decomposes. The solution is cooled in the fridge and then filtered (1). The volume is again reduced to 50mL. The solution is cooled in the fridge and then filtered (2). After this treatment, less than 15% of the original amount of caffeine will remain in the solution.

What remains is a solution of codeine without a discernable amount of caffeine. The solution can be boiled down to a powder that looks something like brown sugar and is intensely bitter. (This step is not normally recommended as high temperatures cause the break-down of codeine.) This is a relatively concentrated form of codeine phosphate. Enjoy responsibly.
  1. Some amount of caffeine is filtered off at this step. Remember to wash your filter paper with a bit of ice-cold water to reduce the losses. What you're doing is actually re-crystallizing the caffeine, and for people who haven't seen it before, it almost looks like cotton candy.
  2. More caffeine is filtered off at this step.
  3. If you don't have automated stirring, just stir occasionally over a half-hour period of time.

Note how this technique refrains from using acids, bases, or organic solvents to accomplish the removal of caffeine from the caffeine/codeine; thus I feel it is a significant breakthrough.

Chromic would like to thank a ‘name-withheld codeine fanatic’ who he worked alongside with via PM to discover this technique.

[top]Chlorpheniramine maleate

Melting Point :
Boiling Point :
Soluble in : water (0.55g/ 100mL, liquid mg/mL [20 °C])
Insoluble in :
Therapeutic dosage : A maximum of 24-30 mg/day. An antihistamine, Chlorpheniramine relieves red, itchy, watery eyes; sneezing; and runny nose caused by allergies, hay fever, and the common cold. It may also relieve the itching of insect bites, bee stings, poison ivy, and poison oak.
Cold Water Extraction : Chlorpheniramine is nearly impossible to extract using a CWE. See extraction for a working, non CWE, method for filtering.
- Soluble in mg/mL at 25°: ethanol 330 mg, chloroform 240mg, water 160 mg, methanol 130 mg.
- Slightly soluble in: benzene, ether.
(The information below is very important!)
- Side-Effects: Symptoms of a Chlorpheniramine overdose include extreme fatigue, confusion, weakness, ringing in the ears, blurred vision, large pupils, dry mouth, flushing, fever, shaking, insomnia, hallucinations, and possibly raising the risk of seizures.
- Potentiating Effects: It has analgesic-sparing (potentiating) effects on opioid analgesics, commonly reducing codeine, dihydrocodeine, and hydrocodone requirements by 10 to 35 per cent.
Chlorpheniramine maleate thread

[top]Doxylamine succinate

Melting Point :
Boiling Point :
Soluble in : water, alcohol, chloroform.
Insoluble in :
Therapeutic dosage : Doxylamine is an anti-histamine in the same class as chlorpheniramine and diphenhydramine. Large quantities could prove fatal. Even smaller doses can lead to an awful experience.
Cold Water Extraction : Doxylamine is nearly impossible to extract using a CWE. See extraction for a working, non CWE, method of filtering.
- One gram soluble in: 1mL water, 2mL alcohol, 2mL chloroform.
- Slightly soluble in: benzene, ether.
(The information below is very important!)
- Side-Effects: May include- dysphoria, vision problems, difficulty urinating, muscle weakness, excitement, and hallucinations. Given the danger of antihistamines, these sound like some of the more benign side effects (See: chlorpheniramine side effects; they are very similar!) More times than not, achieving an opiate high with these chemicals present is not worth the risk.
- Potentiating Effects: Doxylamine has analgesic-sparing (potentiating) effects on opioid analgesics, commonly reducing codeine, dihydrocodeine, and hydrocodone requirements by 10 to 35 per cent.
Questions about Doxylamine Succinate
[top]Removing both Chlorpheniramine Maleate and/or Doxylamine Succinate
1. Crush the tablets into powder as fine as possible.
2. Wash them several times using anhydrous ethanol that has been dried with calcium oxide.
3. Normally, two to three washes of 10mL dried ethanol is sufficient for several boxes of codeine with Chlorpheniramine maleate and/or Doxylamine succinate present.

Hardly any codeine is dissolved while using this method!

[top]Promethazine Hydrochloride

Melting Point :
Boiling Point :
Soluble in : water, alcohol, chloroform.
Insoluble in : acetone, ether, ethyl acetate.
Therapeutic dosage :
Cold Water Extraction : Not known to be possible to filter using a CWE.

Promethazine Recreational Potential?

[top]Gluthethimide

- A combination of codeine and gluthethimide (a sleeping agent) has been used in some places as a heroin substitute.
- Gluthethimide is an enzyme-inducer, allowing the body to convert more than 10% of codeine consumed into morphine.
- Note: This combination increases the addiction potential of codeine.
Further information is needed on the subject and is currently being worked on. Be safe; do not try without getting additional information!

[top]Sodium Bicarbonate - NaHCO3 (Baking Soda)

- Not to be confused with Sodium Chloride – NaCl (Salt)!

Melting Point :
Boiling Point :
Soluble in :
Insoluble in :
Therapeutic dosage : The maximum daily dosage of sodium bicarbonate is 200mEq (16.6 grams of NaHCO3) in patients younger than 60 years of age and 100mEq (8.3 grams of NaHCO3) in patients 60 years of age or older. Generally not dangerous, high doses should be avoided due to risk of harming organs. Drinking lots of fluids is advised.
Cold Water Extraction : It is not possible to filter out NaHCO3 using a CWE.

Effects:
- As an Alkalizer (systemic): Increases the plasma bicarbonate, buffers excess hydrogen ion concentration, and raises blood pH, thereby reversing the clinical manifestations of acidosis.
- As an Alkalizer (urinary): Increases the excretion of free bicarbonate ions in the urine, thus effectively raising the urinary pH. By maintaining alkaline urine, the actual dissolution of uric acid stones may be accomplished.
- As an Antacid: Reacts chemically to neutralize or buffer existing quantities of stomach acid but has no direct effect on its output. This action results in increased pH value of stomach contents, thus providing relief of hyperacidity symptoms.
For more information, see: http://www.drugs.com/mmx/sodium-bicarbonate.html

[top]Pseudoephedrine

Pseudoephedrine alters the effects of opioids. If overdosed on, serious side-effects experienced will be similar to those of caffeine but much stronger. Melting Point :
Boiling Point :
Soluble in : water (slightly)
Insoluble in :
Therapeutic dosage :
Cold Water Extraction : It is practically impossible to filter out pseudoephedrine using a CWE.

Other Extraction Methods (for Different Forms and Chemicals):
Pseudoephedrine Base:
o Freely Soluble in: alcohol, ether.
o Slightly soluble in: water.
Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride:
o Solubility at 25° C (g/ml): water (2.0g), chloroform (0.011g), ethanol (0.278g).
For further information, see:
http://www.drugs.com/pseudoephedrine.html
Pseudoephedrine filtration with Active Carbone?

[top]Salicylic acid

Melting Point : 159° C
Boiling Point : 211° C
Soluble in :
Insoluble in :
Therapeutic dosage :
Cold Water Extraction :

(The information below is very important!)
- Safety : Salicylic acid has an ototoxic effect, and can induce transient hearing loss in zinc-deficient individuals.
o This finding is based on clinical studies with rats. An injection of salicylic acid induced hearing loss in zinc-deficient rats, while a simultaneous injection of zinc reversed the hearing loss. An injection of magnesium in the zinc-deficient rats did not reverse the salicylic acid-induced hearing loss.
- Salicylic acid is toxic in large amounts.
For further information, see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salicylic_acid

[top]Acetic acid (Vinegar)

Melting Point : 16.5° C
Boiling Point : 118.1° C
Soluble in : Miscible with water.
Insoluble in :
Therapeutic dosage :
Cold Water Extraction :

(The information below is very important!)
- Safety: Concentrated acetic acid is corrosive and must therefore be handled with appropriate care, since it can cause skin burns, permanent eye damage, and irritation to the mucous membranes. These burns or blisters may not appear until hours after exposure. Latex gloves offer no protection, so special resistant gloves, such as those made of nitrile rubber, should be worn when handling the compound.
- Concentrated acetic acid can be ignited with difficulty in the laboratory. It becomes a flammable risk if the ambient temperature exceeds 39 °C (102 °F), and can form explosive mixtures with air above this temperature (explosive limits: 5.4%–16%).
For further information, see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetic_acid

[top]Methods of Treating Ingredient Poisoning, Overdosing, and Liver Damage; How to Minimize Side-Effects

As stated exactly in the introduction: If you feel sick- extremely sick- immediately contact professional help and call the ambulance! Do not induce vomiting nor try to solve the problem by consuming other drugs!

The steps listed are best used for preventative measures rather than treatment. Aside from the following, it is best to uphold a healthy nutrition and to take breaks between uses. Drinking plenty of water is also advised.

[top]PCM (APAP) Poisoning: Benefits of Acetylcysteine

PCM (APAP) Poisoning Experiences, Info’s & Discussion Thread

Using Acetylcysteine as antidote: Overdosed toxic itself; drinking lots of water is always recommended due to possible harm to kidneys.

Administration of activated charcoal should be considered if paracetamol in excess of 150mg/kg or 12g (whichever is smaller) is thought to have been ingested within the previous hour.

Acetylcysteine protects the liver if infused within 24 hours of ingesting paracetamol. It is most effective if given within 8 hours of ingestion, after which effectiveness declines sharply. If more than 24 hours has elapsed then advice should be sought from a Poisons Information Center or from a liver unit on the management of serious liver damage. In remote areas, methionine (2.5g) by mouth is an alternative if acetylcysteine cannot be given promptly. Once the patient reaches hospital the need to continue treatment with the antidote will be assessed from the plasma-paracetamol concentration.

Patients at risk of liver damage and therefore requiring treatment can be identified from a single measurement of the plasma-paracetamol concentration, related to the time from ingestion, provided this time interval is not less than 4 hours; earlier samples may be misleading. The concentration is plotted on a paracetamol treatment graph of a reference line (‘normal treatment line') joining plots of 200mg/L (1.32mmol/L) at 4 hours and 6.25mg/L (0.04mmol/L) at 24 hours. Those whose plasma-paracetamol concentration is above the normal treatment line are treated with acetylcysteine by intravenous infusion. If acetylcysteine is not available, the patient will be treated with methionine by mouth, provided the overdose occurred within 10–12 hours and the patient is not vomiting.

Patients on enzyme-inducing drugs (e.g. carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, rifampicin, alcohol, and St John’s Wort) or who are malnourished (e.g. in anorexia, in alcoholism, or those who are HIV-positive) may develop toxicity at lower plasma-paracetamol concentration and should be treated if the concentration is above the high-risk treatment line (which joins plots that are at 50% of the plasma-paracetamol concentrations of the normal treatment line.)

The prognostic accuracy of a plasma-paracetamol concentration measurement taken after 15 hours is uncertain but a concentration above the relevant treatment line should still be regarded as carrying a serious risk of liver damage.

Plasma-paracetamol concentration may be difficult to interpret when paracetamol has been ingested over several hours. If there is doubt about timing or the need for treatment then the patient should be treated with an antidote in any case. -Thanks to Jatelka.

[top]Aspirin Poisoning (Salicylate Poisoning)

Aspirin Poisoning: Info’s, Basics & Discussion Thread

There is no antidote to salicylate poisoning (the active ingredient in aspirin). Frequent blood work is performed to check metabolic, salicylate, and blood sugar levels while arterial blood gas assessments are performed to test for respiratory alkalosis and metabolic acidosis. Patients are monitored and often treated according to their individual symptoms.

Patients may be given intravenous potassium chloride to counteract hypokalemia, glucose to restore blood sugar levels, benzodiazepines for any seizure activity, fluids for dehydration, and most importantly sodium bicarbonate to restore the blood's sensitive pH balance. Sodium bicarbonate also has the effect of increasing the pH of urine, which in turn increases the elimination of salicylate.

Additionally, hemodialysis can be implemented to enhance the removal of salicylate from the blood. Hemodialysis is usually used in severely poisoned patients; for example, patients with significantly high salicylate blood levels, significant neurotoxicity (agitation, coma, and convulsions), renal failure, pulmonary edema, or cardiovascular instability. Hemodialysis also has the advantage of restoring electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities, and often plays life-saving roles in severely ill patients.

All overdose patients should be conveyed to a hospital for assessment immediately. Initial treatment of an acute overdose includes gastric decontamination. This is achieved by administering activated charcoal which adsorbs the aspirin in the gastrointestinal tract. Repeated doses of charcoal have been proposed to be beneficial in aspirin overdose. A study performed found that repeating doses of charcoal might not be of significant value. However, most toxicologists will administer additional charcoal if serum salicylate levels are increasing.

Stomach pumps are no longer routinely used in the treatment of poisonings but are sometimes considered if the patient has ingested a potentially lethal amount within one hour beforehand.

[top]Ibuprofen Poisoning

Basics, Info’s & Experiences on Ibuprofen Poisoning Thread

Therapy is largely symptomatic. In cases presenting early, gastric decontamination is recommended. This is achieved using activated charcoal to absorb the drug before it can enter the systemic circulation. Gastric lavage is now rarely used, but can be considered if the amount ingested is potentially life threatening and it can be performed within 60 minutes of ingestion.

Emesis is not recommended. The majority of ibuprofen ingestions produce only mild effects and the management of overdose is straightforward. Standard measures to maintain normal urine output should be instituted and renal function monitored. Since ibuprofen has acidic properties and is also excreted in the urine, forced alkaline diuresis is theoretically beneficial. However, due to the fact ibuprofen is highly protein-bound in the blood, there is minimal renal excretion of unchanged drug. Forced alkaline diuresis is therefore of limited benefit.

Symptomatic therapy for hypotension, GI bleeding, acidosis, and renal toxicity may be indicated. Occasionally, close monitoring in an intensive care unit for several days is necessary. If a patient survives the acute intoxication, he/she will usually experience no late sequelae.


Any feedback on anything posted above, or information, changes, links, manuals, and criticisms would be appreciated. Feel free to post in the comments section. I hope you (the reader) found this Wiki article useful and the information laid out in a clear and concise manner.

When performing Cold Water Extractions, please be careful! Best of luck to you all!

Created by Alfa, 27-04-2008 at 11:00
Last edited by salviablue Gold member, 21-02-2012 at 00:37
Last comment by Unas on 26-07-2012 at 01:09
13 Comments, 566,852 Views

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