has been defined as "a chronically relapsing disorder", characterized by (1) compulsion to seek and take the drug
, (2) loss of control in limiting intake, and (3) emergence of a negative emotional state (eg, dysphoria, anxiety, irritability) reflecting a motivational withdrawal
syndrome when access to the drug is prevented." It is a disease of the brain
, several genetic factors have been identified which predispose an individual to developing addiction should an initial "event" (ie. drug use) take place.
is someone who is addicted to a substance (or behavior), which is the case when three symptoms emerge: (1) continued use despite negative consequences
(ie. damage to health, financial loss, relational problems) (2) loss of control
(ie. in limiting intake, use of more than planned, use when inappropriate) (3) preoccupation/obsession (ie. thinking about the drug throughout the day, obsession around acquiring and using the drug).