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Adderall® is a North American distribution brand name for a compound pharmaceutical consisting of amphetamine, dextroamphetamine mixed salts generally prescribed for ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and narcolepsy. The brand name is held by Shire plc, an Irish corporation.
It causes stimulation and excitation of the central nervous system.
Adderall is a pharmaceutical stimulant amphetamine used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. It is also occasionally used in the treatment of severe depression. Adderall was first introduced in 1996 by the British pharmaceutical manufacturer Shire Pharmaceuticals Group. Originally available as an instant release tablet, Adderall is now also available in an extended release formulation (Adderall XR). Adderall instant release tablets are available in a generic version- "mixed amphetamine salts." Shire will retain it's patent on Adderall XR until 2007. Until the patent expires the extended formulation will only be available from Shire.
Adderall and Adderall XR are both available in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg. Amphetamine salts are regulated internationally through United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances and available only by prescription in UN countries.
Unconfirmed sources have stated that Shire is currently developing an even longer variation of their extended release formulation. This new formulation will include three types of beads in order to deliver three doses throughout the day instead of two. This is because many psychiatrists and patients feel that a single XR pill isn't enough to keep someone treated for an entire day, just for 8 hours in either school or work, requiring an instant release dose in the early evening to treat their ADHD after this time .
Standard Oral Administration: Adderall is intended to be taken orally, at doses from 5-30mg (measured in instant release). Recreational users do use more, however it is not advisable for inexperienced users to exceed 30mg, if not tolerant to the drug. Effects can be felt anywhere from 30-90 minutes after dosing, with a maximum plasma concentration at 3 hours with instant release tablets and 7 hours with extended release capsules. Most of the effects from instant release tablets will wear off after 4-5 hours, while XR will last for 9-10. The strongest effects of the instant release tablets will probably be felt at 90-120 minutes after ingestion. This holds true for XR, despite the second dose. The second dose rarely causes a noticable 'peak' but instead extends the effects at a constant level after the peak.
Parachuting: This is a variation on oral administration. The idea behind parachuting is that the Adderall will be rendered to a power in order to facilitate faster absorption. In order to parachute Adderall the pill must be turned into a power. With instant release tablets this is just an issue of crushing up the pill. However the extended release beads can be quite difficult to crush. The best method is a mortar and pestle, although a piece of paper and something hard can be equally as effective if done properly. The powder is then either wrapped in a small piece of tissue or toilet paper, or if it was XR placed back in the capsule, and consumed. In the case of XR pills this will obviously destroy the XR mechanism and you will recieve the entire dose at once.
Insuffulation: Adderall can also be snorted if it is crushed into a powder. Again, the XR beads are difficult to crush, so this method is easier with instant release pills. Generally insuffulation doses tend to be similar to oral doses. The effects will be felt, at most, within a few minutes from administration. The effects will be stronger than equal oral doses, but last for a shorter period. In addition, the 'crash' will be more abrupt. Snorting is a good way to conserve Adderall, as small doses (~5mg) can keep someone awake and alert for a few hours.
Rectal Administration: Adderall can be absorbed through the rectal membrane. The most popular method when using this route of administration is to dissolve crushed Adderall in water and insert the solution with a syringe (no needle, of course). There is little information available on the duration and intensity of effects via this route. Given that the rectal membrane is more absorbant than the membrane in the nose, I would expect that it would hit quickly, strongly, and similarly to insuffulation, but with less duration the stronger it is. If anyone has more information on this it would be appreciated.
IV/IM Injection: Adderall can be injected, but I can't find much information on the practice. I also do not know how safe the binders and other things in the pills are in your muscle tissue and bloodstream. Would appreciate more info on this.
Adderall's effects are similar to other central nervous stimulants. While Adderall's exact mechanism is unknown, it is is believed to work by blocking the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine and increasing their release from the presynaptic neuron into the extraneuronal space. The increased amount of dopamine and norepinephrine in the extraneuronal space causes the brain to experience a more intense level of concentration. This simply means that these neurotransmitters are being released but not reabsorbed, creating an abundance of them and causing an increased ability to focus for extended periods of time, and a heightened interest in performing focus-based tasks.
Common side effects include:
Other, less common, side effects include;
Rare side effects include;
Amphetamines, Adderall included, have a number of interactions users should be aware of. They are:
Recreationally, Adderall can be combined with a number of drugs for those looking for specific effects that can only be achieved through such a combination. Information on such combinations is very scarce because it can only be based upon subjective user experiences. Combining Adderall with any other drug can be potentially dangerous so users should make sure they know what they're doing before attempting any combination. I will compile as much information on other combinations as possible, but please keep in mind that there probably won't be much scientific research on them. This means that any or all of these combinations can have risks we don't know about. Use common sense and make sure you know what you're doing before combining Adderall with any other drug. The following drug combinations are provided by information on these forums and contributed user experience. This information is not based on any one specific person's experience, including my own. It is merely a collection of information.
Adderall is widely used both by people with prescriptions and people who obtain it illegally. Those who obtain it illegally do so for any combination of reasons, not limited to the euphoric 'high' that amphetamines provide, the increased mental activity, the ability to stay awake for long periods of time and not feel tired. Adderall has a high potential for abuse and can be dependence forming, so care should be taken in dosing, especially with illicit use.
Adderall and other pharmaceutical stimulants are popular among students as academic steroids. Many students specifically request Adderall from their doctors or buy it illegally because of its academic performance enhancing qualities. Students use Adderall to stay awake and study, remain focused, and stay interested in the material they have to study. A less common use by students is using Adderall at parties to continue staying awake and alert despite consuming alcohol. Using Adderall to party longer is not uncommon amongst all recreational users, not just students. Extreme care should be taken when consuming alcohol with Adderall. Because Adderall offsets some of the less-desirable effects of alcohol, alcohol poisoning can be a risk for those not keeping track of how much they drank. In addition, alcohol poisoning or sickness will probably set in sooner due to the fact that both alcohol and Adderall cause dehydration. Combining the two can be done safely, but only if extreme care is taken to not take too much of either.
Dextroamphetamine saccharate, dextroamphetamine sulfate, racemic amphetamine aspartate, and racemic amphetamine sulfate each make up 25% of Adderall's formulation. Amphetamine triggers the release of a large amount of norepinephrine and dopamine from synaptic vesicles and prevents their degradation by inhibiting monoamine oxidase enzymes. Amphetamine also competes with endogenous catecholamine neurotransmitters at their receptors and thus and slows their re-uptake in the brain, thereby increasing the time they spend in the synaptic cleft.
Dextroamphetamine is a far more potent releasing agent of dopamine than levoamphetamine, and as such, dextroamphetamine accounts for the majority of the euphoria that users experience on amphetamines. Levoamphetamine has greater effects on norepinephrine, and is therefore very efficient at promoting wakefulness and reducing hunger. However, some prefer a product that is 100% dextroamphetamine (e.g. Dexedrine) due to the occasionally unpleasant effects that levoamphetamine can elicit.
Adderall is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States due to its high potential for abuse. Amphetamines and amphetamine-containing products are highly addictive and as such risk of abuse is high.
Amphetamine psychosis is a common sign of Adderall overdose. The psychosis can include visual and auditory hallucinations coupled with a zombie-like mental state. Early stages of psychosis can be treated by a benzodiazepine such as Alprazolam or Clonazepam and sleep. Psychosis will be exacerbated by more amphetamines and staying awake.
Relevant chemical data can be found in the amphetamine wiki
The active ingredients of Adderall are dextroamphetamine and dl-amphetamine (levoamphetamine) in equal amounts. These amphetamine salts are in a racemic mixture of equal amounts of left- and right-handed isomers. Because of this, there are four different amphetamine salts in total, all in equal proportions. These amphetamine salts are;
Shire claims that this provides a smoother climb and decline in effects when compared to a single salt due to the fact that the different salts are metabolized at different rates. The average elimination half-life for dextroamphetamine is 10 hours in adults, while the average time is 13 hours for levoamphetamine. However "there is little evidence to support this claim for immediate-release. A recent patent application for Adderall (USP #6,384,020) was a pharmaceutical composition patent listing a rapid immediate release oral dosage form. No claim of increased or smooth drug delivery was made. A recent double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, conducted among children, indicated that patients behaved similarly to other immediate release amphetamines. The authors found that sustained-release dexamphetamine (the main isomeric-amphetamine component of Adderall) had a longer duration of action, and cost less than Adderall, though dexamphetamine was less effective in the first few hours."  Despite this, both claims lack enough evidence to say with certainty if the mixture provides smoother onset and decline of effects.
The ingredients and proportions of Adderall XR are the same as instant release Adderall. However the dose is delivered via the Microtrol delivery system in order to provide for an extended release action. This system consists of a capsule full of beads, each of which contain a share of the medication. Half of the beads are designed to dissolve immediately, while the other half is released four hours later. Through this mechanism, maximum plasma concentration is achieved in seven hours. In comparison, immediate release Adderall achieves maximum plasma concentration by three hours.
Adderall instant release can be obtained as a name brand product from Shire or as a generic product from many different generic pharmaceutical manufacturers. Shire currently still has the patent on the release system in Adderall XR and so Adderall XR can only be obtained as a name brand product. The patent expiration date has passed a few times but Shire has continued to delay it through litigation. The exact status of when Adderall XR will lose its patent is unknown.
Adderall should only be administered to those with a valid prescription and valid diagnosis. The UN believes that stimulant abuse is a problem and is trying to find a way to decrease the amount of people who abuse stimulants. For more information visit:
Adderall is a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States making it illegal to possess or purchase without a prescription.
Adderall is a Class B controlled substance in the UK making it illegal to possess without a valid prescription.
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1. Wikipedia Adderall & Amphetamine articles
2. Shire Adderall Information
3. United States FDA Adderall Information
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