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A few weeks ago, SWIM moved into a new house with an old friend of SWIM's dad. So SWIUS was talking about plants of the mind-shifting variety, and in particular, salvia divinorum and he mentions that there's a salvia bush outside.
So SWIM explained that only the divinorum species is psychoactive, joints were smoked, the subject was forgotten about.
A few days later, SWIM stumbled across the article below, about the possibility's of other species of salvia having f/x. Basically there hundreds of salvias, many of them found in gardens, some are found to have the same chems in them, but in a much lower quantity.
So SWIM goes and picks some leaves from the salvia outside (think it's 'salvia microphylla', from images found on a search engine). SWIM chews a few for a while, and.... nothing. Then SWIM proceeds to dry um and smoke um and... SWIM wasn't quite sure, as he's always very susceptible to placebo effect. Wasn't too dissappointed as wasn't really expecting anything anyway.
A week later, for reason unbeknownst to SWIM, SWIM smokes the remainder of dryed leaves and flowers.
SWIM took about three pipe-fulls of the stuff, holding it in for about 20secs. It actually kind of tasted like salvia d.
SWIM definately got like a level 1 salvia experience, wanting to sit back, slight dissorientation, euphoria, trance-like state, and percieved slightly altered visual awareness.
To be honest it was slightly different than standard salvia d. Perhaps different active chemicals or different ratios of salvinorin-A, salvinorin-B and salvinorin-C.
SWIM tried it again with HBWR yesterday, and it definately enhanced visuals.
SWIM might try an home extraction as told in these forums to see if SWIM can't make something more potent of the stuff.
Anyways, just wondering if other of SWIYs have experimented with other species.
P.S. sorry bout the long write up , just thaught SWIM better put the hole story up, to be concise and finicky etc.
Many quotes in this article are from persons who wish to remain anonymous. Others are from published reports on various newsgroups and forums. I have used no names accordingly.
It is not the intent of this article to discuss Salvia divinorum. That has been done elsewhere and at great length. Nor is it the purpose of this paper to discuss the fragrant and culinary sages that are known to contain thujone, the active principal in absinthe. Rather this article is meant to deal with the other tested and untested but potentially psychoactive species of Salvia plants. There has been much recent interest over claims of similar compounds to those in S. divinorum being found in other species of Salvias. The earliest record is to be found in Pharmacotheon (Ott, 1996, pg. 380) “Similar diterpenes such as salviarin and splendidin have been isolated from Salvia splendens and other Salvia species (Savona et al 1978; Savona et al 1979), and these Salvia diterpenes represent a novel class of psychoactive compounds.”
Late in 1997 there began to appear references to Salvia splendens being sublingually active as an anxiolytic on various forums on the internet. When attempting to pursue these leads, contradictions were encountered that did not deter my quest, but gave me certain reservations. Through the good graces of a benefactor, I was able to obtain some S. splendens leaf in late 1997 about the same time I acquired some seeds. I posted at that time on two different forums (The Lycaeum and E.com trip reports forums) but did not save a copy of the posts and they have become unretrievable. The posts dealt with the smoking of Salvia splendens and how the effects were comparable to the last hour of a Ps. mushroom experience. Others who tested Salvia splendens in various forms had varying degrees of success. While some thought that the experience was likenable to that of cannabis “…less than a similar sized bowl of “Cannabis Cup Mix” but worth trying again…” and “… kind of being high (MJ) without the confusedness…” others compared it to Benzodiazepines or anxiolytic substances “…yes, definitely calming…”. Most of the remarks concerning tranquilizing effects were from those who used the leaves sublingually “When I took S. splendens sublingually…the effect was one of emotional numbing without intellectual dullness…” and “…I felt a relaxing effect in my head…the muscles in my arms had relaxed as well…” Other comparisons were to smoking wormwood “…she thought that it was a gentle relaxant and found it quite pleasurable to read whilst under it’s effects…when I mentioned that I noted a similarity with wormwood, she concurred…” Wormwood is Artemesia absinthum and contains thujone.
The various reports of differing effects are not unusual when trying to describe a new and hitherto unknown experience. People tend to describe the unfamiliar with what is familiar to them, and so each person coming from their own frame of reference can only use those terms they know. I have seen posts comparing S. splendens with GHB, beer and cannabis, valium and psychedelics in their last stages of intoxication. The only thing some of the posts have in common is that there is a definite effect from S. splendens. Some have found combining it with cannabis helpful “…When some cannabis is smoked one hour into the experience the latter’s effect is considerably potentiated, but with the clarity of the splendens evident…” while others have found it to be the opposite “…after an hour and a half of completely no-show, I was persuaded to try a small pipe of good, strong, but known quality bud. Bad Idea…whether the splendens affected the buzz off the bud or the bud in some way activated the splendens trip-I knew even before I put the pipe down it was going to be a bad one…I had a tendency to nod…as if my body was in two parts split by a V running from shoulders to just above the navel and joined by a hinge like a joint…I probably could have had an out of body experience (it certainly looked like it would have gone that way) if I had let the trip take over, but the thing was a bit too freaky for that…” One person has reported on the usage of the combination of Salvia divinorum and S. splendens, stating that “…well over an hour and a half had surely passed when I got an idea that I just had to try. Splendens flowers, naturally dried. Three hits later I’m pleasantly fried. Is it synergistic? It surely must be. Like an elongated divinorum trip, with a lower peak…” and “… I smoked five big hits of splendens flowers…then I immediately smoked one good hit of divinorum. I was rocketed into a slightly altered divinorum peak…the peak wasn’t quite as intense as just divinorum, but lasted about an hour…” and “…after I came down off the divinorum I smoked some splendens and it brought my divinorum trip back almost to the peak…”
After experimenting with splendens, I became interested in other Salvia species that might contain active diterpenes. A friend sent me a reference to diterpenes in S. coccinea (Savona et al 1982) and I acquired seeds and germinated them. The following is from the Lycaeum Trip Reports forum, February 22, 1998:
“Pursuant to reports of diterpenes in the aerial parts of the plant Salvia coccinea (Savona et al 1982). ½ gram of leaf material was prepared and used for pyrolytic assay.
The effects may be compared to those of Salvia splendens. Firstly was noted a disinclination to move from the chair in which one was sitting. Colors and textures became more distinct, accompanied by a mental clarity. Music became deeper and more full, with nuances that had never been previously noticed in familiar works. The thought process seemed to have been given wings. Physical effects were basically non-existent except for the disinclination to move which may also be described as feeling made of stone, hence having no inclination to move in the first place.
Where previously S. splendens had been compared to the last hour of a cubensis experience, this reminds the subject more of mescaline at a similar stage. Potentiation with cannabis at plus one hour was synergistic. Unlike S. divinorum, one can carry out “normal” activities under it’s influence, although activities requiring concentration-such as typing-are somewhat hindered.
The duration seems to be similar to S. splendens , but somewhat more stimulatory in nature after the initial onset…”
After the success with S. coccinea, I began to investigate other members of the Salvia family and I began aquiring and testing other species. I tested S. Argentia, S. plebia, and S. superba, all by smoking. All of the Salvias tested had similar effects. A short time later I received in the mail a copy of Chapter 12 of “Phytochemistry of Medicinal Plants” edited by John T.Arnason et al, the chapter being entitled “Neo-Clerodane Diterpenoids from American Salvia Species” by Lydia Rodriguez-Hahn, Baldomero Esquivel and Jorge Cardenas which listed the following American Salvia species:
Neo-clerodane diterpenoids are the class of chemicals of which Salvinorin A is one example. Others in this class are Splendidin and Salviarin from S. splendens, Salvimadrensis and Salvimadrensinone from S. madrensis and Salviacoccin from S. coccinea.
Other reports came in from other forums and newsgroups regarding the effects of S. greggii, S. lyrata, S. farinacea and S. guaranitica, all of them positive.
Many of the Salvias on this list have not yet been tested, to my knowledge, and while so far no one of those tested has come close to the effects of S. divinorum, all tested have been found to be worthy of further study.
One more note: A compound known as forskholin extract, isolated from Coleus barbatus (=Coleus forskholii) also in the class of neo-clerodane diterpenoids and having a chemical structure similar to that of Salvinorin A was also tested in the above series of experiments and was found to be similar to smoking the flowers of S. splendens which are considered to be somewhat stronger than the leaves but otherwise alike in effects. The feeling of "clarity" was more noticable, also.
There is a report of use of a 5X extract of S. splendens leaf which states "Too much of a good thing can definitely put you to sleep. I only lasted about an hour, but the effects were distinctly stronger, more like cannabis, and like it, too much will put you right to sleep. It was more than before, but still nothing like the world shattering of S.d….I had a similar experience with the flowers a week ago. They seemed stronger than the leaf and put me to sleep"
There are approximately 900 different species of Salvia. Only a very few of them have been tested and of those the great majority has been found active. The above list only represents a small fraction of the Salvia family; those from the Americas which have been chemically analyzed . For the most part these remain to be bio-assayed. There may be another Salvia divinorum out there still. The success so far can only be looked at as encouraging.
I have seen reports on various newsgroups and forums mentioning skullcap and other members of the mint family, such as the basils, as having psychoactive activity. This is another promising direction for experimentation, one which I hope to explore more fully as soon as possible.
In closing, let me state that it appears the mint family-which has more medicinal plants in it than any other plant family-has great potential for new and unusual entheogens yet to be discovered and the availability is such that anyone can be a pioneer in this field. Let me also state that I do not advise anyone to attempt to duplicate or expand upon these experiments unless they are a qualified researcher. To blindly go into the garden or anywhere for that matter and just break off and chew or smoke leaves from plants without first knowing the chemistry of that plant adequately enough is asking for a trip to the hospital or worse.
Thanks to daylight and all the others who helped put this list together!
@baj i didint think this should go in the salvia forum because it says "salvia divinorum" and not just salvia. ill let you decide.
Salvia aegyptiaca: Extracts have antinociceptive effects in animals Salvia aethiopis: Aethiopinone isolated from roots has antinociceptive effects in animals
Salvia africana-lutea: Water extract has antinociceptive effects in animals
Salvia coccinea: Smoking 1/2 gram of leaves was reported to be "calming" Salvia divinorum: Active
Salvia Dorrii: Reported to have been smoked by Native Americans and in particular the Ute Tribe for their mildly hallucinogenic effects. Also known as Tobacco Sage.
Salvia dorisiana: Leaves were described as "edible", suggestive oral inactivity.
Reported as orally inactive. Conflicting reports have been made at The ********** forum of oral and smoked activty. There has also been a study done in Chile that reports anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in rats from a hydroalcoholic extract.
i never noticed any effect from smoking it, the smoke does not taste like pineapple nor did the leaves when i ate them. - daylight Salvia farinacea: Seems active but uninteresting. Smoking it didnt do anything special for me. Just a bit of relaxing activity. - daylight
Salvia greggii: Reported to be active
Sedative and hypnotic due to its content of cirsiliol.
Smoking 1/2 dried leaf (leaves are very big) in a bong did not produce significant effects, just a placebo-like relaxation. - unsigned_char72 Salvia haematodes: Sedative, possible antinociceptive effects in animals
Salvia hormium: Leaves and seeds make liquor more inebriating, and powdered leaves make a good snuff
Salvia lavandulaefolie: Extracts inhibit acetylcholinesterase and improve memory and cognition Salvia leriifolia: Leaf extract sedative, hypnotic, relaxant and antinociceptive in animals
Smoking the leaves is reported to increase the length of dreams - unsigned_char72
Smoking 200mg of plain leaf didn't seem to have any effect, but I usually don't recall dreams - entheodelic
No effect, but habitual cannabis use rules out dreams for the most part - daylight Salvia longispicata x farinacea (Mystic Spires): Smoked leaves are reported to be speedy, analgesic and aphrodisiac - zombiesoul
Salvia melissodora: reported to be active
S. mellifera (Black Sage): No effects when smoked as plain leaf - daylight Salvia mexicana: no effects from quid of 2 leaves. Salvia miltiorrhiza (dan shen): Roots and leaves are anxiolytic and sedative due to its content of miltirone. Seeds reported to be stimulating. Salvia nemorosa:
Leaves and especially flowers of the Caradonna and Superba varieties (sometimes reported as its own species) are analgesic and produce vivid dreams when taken orally - zombiesoul
analgesic (but does not alter dreams) when smoked - daylight
The roots are also active - sputnik3
the May Night variety was reported to be weak - ref?
Five grams of superba (19 fresh leaves) or snow hill (33 fresh leaves) variety had no effect when quidded and swallowed. 22 grams (9 spires) of Pink Friesland shredded in hot water, strained and drunk had no effect. - entheodelic
I chewed a quid of one spire and two big leaves (quite a bit of plant matter in my mouth) and felt nothing. Been smoking increasingly larger amounts of flowers with nothing yet - Bum
smoked 1 bowl of just flowers, with a bit of my usual dried greens smoke blend. nothing to note first round. but it wasnt a large amount. didn't weigh it either. - teeko
"Blue Hills": Smoked about .3g dried material, mostly leaves, a few
small flower pieces. Slight heart effects, "rushing" sensation, relaxation and trippy feel, opiate-like euphoria, potentiation of hydrocodone. - ethnophile7
S. nemorosa: 60-80% relief from 500-700mg/day morphine habit - Lemmiwinks
"May Night": Mild - Zombiesoul Salviaofficinalis: Leaves mildly stimulating when eaten or smoked due to their content of thujone. Greatly intensifies/alters the effects of edit.
Salvia sclarea: essential oil is sedative and anticonvulsant Salvia spathacea:
Gives a high extremely similar to S. nemorosa at 0.3g of plain leaf. Leaves very similar in appearance to nemorosa, they also share a purpling reaction when the leaves are dried out. - daylight
Smoked flowers were awarded the two middle finger (top) award by Zombiesoul Salvia splendens:
Leaves and flowers reported to be anxiolytic or mild intoxicant when smoked. Although a study by Daniel Siebert seemed to show these effects to be placebo, it seems that some varieties ('Bonfire', 'Blaze of fire') are active and others (the Sizzler series) are not.
Definately active, anxiolytic , sedative, emo-numbing effects from smoking some leaf. Harsh flavor and taste, flowers also active, they burn less but have more unpleasant flavor ~ mutant Salvia transsylvanica: Reported to have significant analgesic, antipyretic, antiepileptic, antiinflammatory, antiulcerogenic, as well as tranquillizing activities.
Salvia tricolor: Possibly sedative
Salvia virgata: Considered "closely related to S. nemorosa" and possibly the "big leaved" nemorosa that Daylight found similar in effect to S. nemorosas.
great post. SWIm would like to know more about this
"Blue Hills": Smoked about .3g dried material, mostly leaves, a few
small flower pieces. Slight heart effects, "rushing" sensation, relaxation and trippy feel, opiate-like euphoria, potentiation of hydrocodone. - ethnophile7
i am at the momment growing blue hills and splendens from seed not big enough to sample yet but im hoping to cross pollinate them and see what i get as divinorumis believed to be a hybrid and theese 2 seem most active ill keep y'all posted
sweet deal fnord, you put our list up here! thanks bro!
i found this while digging around for more active sage research papers.
outsiderx, what did you want to know about salvia nemorosa?
i will try and answer everyones questions about this(active salvia spp.) if there are any.
DayLight added 15 Minutes and 16 Seconds later...
and mad'ed, i can assure you SD is not a nemorosa/splendens cross. no way. the morphology is not the same whatsoever(aside from basic traits in the salvia family) and they are not genetically close enough. saliva mellisodora and salvia madrensis are better bets for research into the parents of divinorum. plus nemorosa and splendens have been wildly hybridized for growth characteristics and flowers, due to their being popular bedding plants, so it would be impossible to re-create the original cross because the original strains of nemmy and splendens are likely gone.
Last edited by DayLight; 28-05-2008 at 16:01.
Reason: Automerged Doublepost
disappointing im still interested in other active salvias having only done divinorum 2 or 3 times back in the uk absolutly hatin this place everythings illegal here even shit no ones heard of recently bought an establised flowering splendens and have noted effects with marijuana havnt tried it alone yeat but there is more than just mary at the party
To further illustrate the point, and provide a big bump to this old yet worthwhile thread, here are some more examples of research on salvia species with possible psychoactive properties in humans.
S. Mora, R. Millán, H. Lungenstras, G. Díaz-Véliz, J.A. Morán, M. Herrera-Ruiz and J. Tortoriello. (2006).The hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia elegans induces anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in rat. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 106(1): 76-81.
Abstract: Behavioral effects of a hydroalcoholic (60% ethanol) extract from the leaves of Salvia elegans Vahl (Lamiaceae) were studied in male Sprague–Dawley rats. The extract was administered intraperitoneally and its effects on spontaneous motor activity (total motility, locomotion, rearing and grooming behavior) were monitored. Putative anxiolytic and antidepressant properties of Salvia elegans were studied in the elevated plus-maze test (EPM) and in the forced swimming test (FST), respectively. Deleterious effects of Salvia elegans on learning and memory were also studied by using active and passive avoidance paradigms. The results revealed that all doses (3.12, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) of the extract caused a significant decrease in total motility, locomotion, rearing and grooming behavior. Only the dose of 12.5 mg/kg increased the exploration of the EPM open arms in a similar way to that of diazepam (1 mg/kg). In the FST, all doses of the extract induced a reduction of immobility, in a similar way to that of fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) and imipramine (12.5 mg/kg), along with a significant increase in the time spent in swimming behavior. Acquisition of active avoidance responses was disrupted by pre-treatment with the extract, but retention of a passive avoidance response was not significantly modified. These results suggest that some of the components of the hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia elegans have psychotropic properties, which deserve further investigation.
M. Rabbani, S.E. Sajjadi, A. Jafarian and G. Vaseghi. (2005). Anxiolytic effects of Salvia reuterana Boiss. on the elevated plus-maze model of anxiety in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 101(1-3): 100-103.
Abstract: The anxiolytic and sedative effects of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of Salvia reuterana Boiss. was evaluated in mice. The HE of Salvia reuterana (100 mg/kg), increased the percentage of time-spent and the percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. Spontaneous locomotor activity count measured in 15 min of the test was significantly decreased in animals pretreated with diazepam and 100 mg/kg of Salvia reuterana extract. Results of the present study provide support for the traditional usage of Salvia reuterana as a sedative and anxiolytic medicinal plant.
M. H. Al-Yousuf, A. K. Bashir, B. H. Ali , M. O. M. Tanira and G. Blunden. (2002). Some effects of Salvia aegyptiaca L. on the central nervous system in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 81(1): 121-127.
Abstract:Salvia aegyptiaca L. is used for treating various unrelated conditions that include nervous disorders, dizziness, trembling, diarrhoea and piles. This work examines some effects of the crude acetone and methanol extracts of the plant given at single oral doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 g/kg, on the central nervous system (CNS) in mice. The extracts were also tested for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic actions. Several models of nociception have been used to examine the analgesic effect of the extract. In treated mice, the extracts caused dose-related inhibition of acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, and significantly reduced formalin-induced pain. Treatment with the extracts at doses of 0.5 and 1 g/kg significantly increased the reaction time in the hot-plate test. In treated mice both extracts caused significant and dose-related impairment of the sensorimotor control and motor activity. Treatment with both extracts did not significantly affect the rectal temperature of normothermic mice. The methanol extract (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) did not affect the rectal temperature of hyperthermic mice, but the acetone extract was effective in significantly reducing the rectal temperature of hyperthermic mice, 0.5 and 1 h after administration of the extract at doses of 0.25–2 g/kg. It is concluded that the crude methanol and acetone extracts of S. aegyptiaca have CNS depressant properties, manifested as antinociception and sedation. Both extracts have some anti-inflammatory and antipyretic actions. On the whole, the acetone extract appeared to be slightly more effective than the methanol extract in this regard.
SALVIA MICROPHYLLA-Love the smell and taste of this one swim has been working with this herb for some time now it is active definetly not placebo effects are altered state of mind and shit looks weird/vibrant. VERY noticeable effects.
. Salvia microphylla- contains the neo-clerodane dilactone one of the constituents thought to be responsible for its theraputecic effects used in mexican medicine---..A new phenolic ester 2-( p-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl eicosaheptanoic acid ester (1) and a known one hexacosylferulate (2) were isolated from the acetone extract of Salvia microphylla. In addition, two sesquiterpenes beta-eudesmol (3) and 8alpha-hydroxy-beta-eudesmol (4), a diterpene carnosic acid 12-methyl ether (12-methoxycarnosic acid) (5), three triterpenes erithrodiol 3-acetate, oleanolic acid, lupeol and beta-sitosterol were obtained as known compounds from this plant extract. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including one- and two- dimensional 1H- and 13C-NMR and MS spectroscopies
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- salvia greggi- pimarane diterpenoids have been isolated one is a neo clerodane diterpenoid, 10B-hydroxy-8-epi-salviarin(46)
SALVIA LEUCANTHA THE SALVIA THAT CAUSES LUCID DREAMING-The essential oil from the aerial parts of Salvia leucantha Cav. (Lamiaceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The oil was found rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons; ß-caryophyllene (13.9%), α-guaiene (12.6%), cis-muurola-3,5-diene (10.8%), germacrene D (13.8%) and bicyclogermacrene (8.7%). Bornyl acetate constituted 23.9% of the oil. This is the first detailed report on the essential oil composition based on capillary GC and GC/MS analyses.
Key Word Index Salvia leucantha , Lamiaceae, essential oil composition, bornyl acetate.
Introduction Salvia leucantha Cav. (Lamiaceae) has a wide distribution and is a common garden plant. Seven species of Salvia are reported to grow in the central Himalayan region of India (1) and have not been thoroughly investigated for their steam volatile components. A literature review could reveal a few reports on Salvia leucantha. The first two reports on the steam volatile components show die presence of 1,8-cineole (7.6-0.0%), p-cymene (4.0-7.2%), thujone (5.4-7.0%), linalool (9.0-10.0%), geranyl acetate (4.8-6.0%), ritrai (19.0-25.0%), citronellal (2.0%), citronellol (9.6-12.0%), geraniol (12.0-13.0%), cedrene (6.2%) and aromadendrene (6.0%) in the oil (2,3). The other three reports show the isolation and identification of salvigenane and isosalvipuberulan diterpenoids from an acetone extract (4) and triterpenes (5,6) from a chloroform extract of its aerial parts. Our preliminary examination of die essential od of Salvia leucantha indicated its composition to be significandy different from that reported earlier (2,3). We have carried out a detaded analysis of the oil, which forms the basis of the present communication.A new diterpenoid with a rearranged neoclerodane skeleton, spiroleucantholide (compound S1), along with four known diterpenoids—salvifaricin (compound S2), isosalvipuberulin (compound S3), salvileucantholide (compound S4), and salviandulin E (compound S5)—was isolated from the aerial parts of Salvia leucantha CAV.. The structures were established by spectroscopic methods, including the X-ray analysis of spiroleucantholide (S1
SALVIA FARANICEA- somewhat active effects from a extract made with isopropyl alcohol. When smoke the effects are almost identical to that of thujone
From the aerial part of Salvia farinacea two new neo-clerodane diterpenoids, salvifarin and salvifaricin, have been isolated. The structures of these diterpenoids have been established mainly by spectroscopic means and by comparison with closely related compounds.
The clerodane diterpenoid salvinorin A ( 1 ), the main active component of the psychotropic herb Salvia divinorum , has been reported to be a potent agonist at the Κ -opioid receptor. Computer modeling suggested that splendidin ( 2 ) from S. splendens , as well as related compounds, might possess similar activities. In the present study, this hypothesis was tested by determination of the binding properties of a series of structural congeners, compounds 2 – 8 , at the Μ -, Δ -, and Κ -opioid receptors. However, none of these compounds showed significant binding to any of the opioid-receptor subtypes, thus disproving the above hypothesis. The novel compounds 7 and 8 were obtained semi-synthetically by selective modification of salvifarin ( 5 ), isolated from Salvia farinacea , upon epoxide-ring opening with AcOH in the presence of indium(III) triflate. Also, the X-ray crystal structure of salvifaricin ( 6 ; Fig. ), obtained from S. farinacea , was determined for the first time and used, in combination with in-depth NMR experiments, to elucidate the absolute configurations of the new products. Our experiments demonstrate that the relatively well-accessible diterpenoid 6 could be used as starting material for future studies into the structure–activity relationship at the Κ -opioid receptor.
SALVIA NEMOROSA- everyone pretty knows this one is active. Combining it with kratom it is powerfully overwhelming
Anti-nociceptive Effects of the Aerial Parts of Salvia nemorosaL. Extracts in Mice
H. Hosseinzadeh PhD, S. Amel PharmD Faculty of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Abstract Background-Several genera of Labiatae have anti-nociceptive properties with an efficacy similar to classical analgesic drugs. Objective-In this study, the anti-nociceptive activity of Saliva nemorosa extract was evaluated. Methods-Anti-nociceptive properties of the aerial parts of S. nemorosa were studied using hot plate and writhing tests on the aqueous decoction and ethanolic maceration extracts of the aerial parts of this plant. Results-In contrast to the ethanolic extract, intraperitoneal injection of aqueous extract showed anti-nociceptive activity in the hot-plate test which was inhibited by naloxone. In the writhing test, however, considerable anti-nociceptive activity was observed in case of both aqueous as well as ethanolic extracts. Here again, naloxone had an inhibitory effect on the anti-nociceptive properties of only the aqueous extract. Conclusion-This study shows that S. nemorosa had both central and peripheral anti-nociceptive activities that may be mediated by opioid receptors. Keywords ·Salvia nemorosa · anti-nociceptive activity · opioid activity · medicinal plants
The genus Salvia from the Labiatae family, has 58 different species such as S. aegyptica, S. aethiopis,S. officinalisand S. nemorosa. 1 Labiatae, are generally known for their multiple pharmacological effects including their analgesic, anti-inflammatory2, antioxidant3, hepatoprotective4, hypoglycemic 5-7, antimicrobial 8, and CNS-depressant activities. 9 Through chemical investigations nemorone, a triterpene compound,10 and glycosides such as salvionosides A-C11 have been isolated from this plant.
?The following study was undertaken to study the anti-nociceptive activities of S. nemorosa (called Maryam-e Goli Kuhi in Persian) in mice.2, 9,12
Materials and Methods
Male Albino mice weighing 25-30 gr were selected from a random-bred colony and maintained on a special diet (Khorasan Javane Co. Mashhad, I.R. Iran) in the animal house of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The animals were housed in colony rooms 12/12 hours light/dark cycle at a temperature of 21±2° C with free access to food and water. Plant material: Salvia nemorosa was collected from Shandiz (an area with 30 Km distance from Mashhad, northern Iran). The plants were identified in the herbarium of Ferdowsi University. Voucher samples were preserved for reference in the herbarium of the Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad (153-1914-4). After being dried in the shadow, the plants were subsequently grounded. Preparation of extracts:
The extract of the plant was obtained using 2 methods, aqueous decoction, and maceration with ethanol. In the decoction method, one liter of hot water was added to 100 grams of the grinded plant, boiled for 15 minutes and finally filtered through cloth. This extract was then concentrated to the desired volume under reduced pressure.
In the maceration method, 200 grams of the grounded plant was added to 500-ml ethanol (85%, v/v) and left as such for three days. This macerated mixture was subsequently filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure at 50° C. The ethanolic extract was solubilized by Tween-80. Anti-nociceptive study: Hot-plate test:
Hot-plate test was assessed on mice, in which the temperature of the metal surface was maintained at 55±0.2° C for 40 seconds (cut-off time). Latency to a discomfort reaction (licking paws or jumping) was determined before and after drug administration. Writhing test:
One hour after administration of extracts, the mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of 0.6% v/v acetic acid solution (volume of injection 0.1ml/10gr). Morphine was injected intraperitoneally 45 minutes before the injection of acetic acid. Naloxone was administered subcutaneously 15 minutes before the extracts and morphine injection. The number of writhes produced in these animals was counted for 30 minutes. Maximum tolerated dose:
Different doses of the extracts were injected to separated groups of six mice. After 48 hours, the highest dose that failed to induce mortality was considered as the maximum tolerated dose. Materials:
The following agents were used: morphine sulfate (Daru Pakhsh, I.R. Iran), naloxone hydrochloride (ToliDaru, I.R. Iran). Statistical analysis:
The data were expressed as mean values ± SEM and tested with ANOVA followed by the multiple comparison test of Tukey-Kramer.
The maximum tolerated doses of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4 and 8 g/kg, respectively. Also it was seen that doses of 10 and 8 mg/kg of the respectively aqueous and ethanolic extracts killed all animals.
Morphine (2.5-10 mg/kg, IP) showed signifi-cant anti-nociceptive activity in the hot-plate test. In this test, the intraperitoneal injection of the aqueous extract exhibits anti-nociceptive activity. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, SC) completely inhibited this activity (Fig. 1). The ethanolic extract did not show any significant activity in the hot-plate test.
Both extract forms of Salvia nemorosa showed marked anti-nociceptive activities in the writhing test. There were no significant difference between the effect of the aqueous (0.5 mg/kg) and the ethanolic extract (1 and 2 mg/kg) compared with morphine (10 mg/kg) in reducing writhes numbers. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, SC) pretreatment only reduced the anti-nociceptive activities of the aqueous extract and morphine (Fig. 2).
Present results indicate that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the aerial parts of S. nemorosa have anti-nociceptive activities with different profiles.
The maximum tolerated dose of the aqueous extract was found to be much higher than the ethanolic extract. This indicates that the aqueous extract is probably less toxic and better tolerated than the other extract.
Opioid agents exert their analgesic effects via supraspinal (µ1, ?3, d1, d2) and spinal (µ2, ?1, d2) receptors.13 Hot-plate test is a specific central anti-nociceptive test.14 The aqueous extract showed anti-nociceptive activity in the hot-plate test, and this effect was inhibited by naloxone. Therefore, it is possible that the extract had exerted its effect through central opioid receptors and promoted the release of endogenous opiopeptides.
Both extracts showed significant anti-nociceptive activities in the writhing test. They reduced the number of writhes more than 90%. In this test, the extracts showed considerable anti-nociceptive activity similar to morphine. Other substances such as opioid agonists, opioid partial agonists and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents show their anti-nociceptive activity in the writhing test.15 Since the anti-nociceptive activity of the ethanolic extract was not inhibited by naloxone, it means that they had no opioid effects and it is likely that the effect of the extracts is similar to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
It is concluded that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the aerial parts of S. nemorosa have significant anti-nociceptive effects. The aqueous extract has central and peripheral anti-nociceptive activity, which is partially mediated by opioid receptors. The ethanolic extract, however, possibly has only peripheral anti-nociceptive effects.
The authors are thankful to Dr. M. Ramezani, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmaco-gnosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad, for his guidance.
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Vogel HG, Vogel WH. Drug Discovery and Evaluation, Pharmacological Assay. Berlin: Springer, 1997 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ RUSSIAN SAGE (perovskia atriplifolica)- one of the most powerfull herbs swiy has never heard of. some know this is a pleasant herb. It is gathering more and more attention each year. It contains multiple actives thujone, tanshinones, quinones and multiple chemicals that work on the benzodiazipine receptors. swiy will find plenty of information across the web using correct search terms. the infamous ''triple X blend' contains a powerful extract from this sage
Thujone, Miltirone, and oxy-miltirone. Some other compounds are but not limited to tanshinones, camphor, limonene, a-globulol, trans-caryophyllene, a-humulene, 1,8-cineole, camphene, a-pinene, b-caryophyllene, y-cadinene, a-terpinyl acetate, and over 14 unidentified compunds.
SWIM found by accident last night that salvia microphylla is surprisingly interesting when smoked before a spliff. 3 or 4 small bowls of leaves, which on it's own is hardly noticeable, before a spliff and it seems to double the potency and give the high an interesting feel. If anyone knows if there is some interesting interactions going on there please let me know.