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Drug Policy Reform & Narco Politics The war on drugs, drug politics, how drugs influence politics & (inter)national conflicts.

 
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Old 13-01-2008, 01:15
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Timeline history of Drug Use and Prohibition

This is a history of drug use/prohibition based on the Appendix of
*Ceremonial Chemistry* by Thomas Szasz. The book is published
by "Doubleday/Anchor" Garden City, New York, 1975. I included his
references. I have added several items of interest and I have deleted
some things I did not feel were relevant (Szasz documents the parallel
course of relgious history). All unattributed items (no footnote)
are from the book.



There are some real jewels in this collection. The entry for 1949 is

especially profound.



Note how many times governments have banned vaious drugs. At one time

tabacco was illegal in more than a dozen states! Fat lot of good it did.



I saw Szasz speak not too long ago, he is a wonderful person, absolutely

brilliant and very charming. The book is now in its second edition.



----------------------------------------------------------------------



c. 5000 B.C. The Sumerians use opium, suggested by the fact that

they have an ideogram for it which has been translated

as HUL, meaning "joy" or "rejoicing." [Alfred R. Lindensmith,

*Addiction and Opiates.* p. 207]



c. 3500 B.C. Earlist historical record of the production of alcohol:

the description of a brewery in an an Egyptian papyrus.

[Joel Fort, *The Pleasure Seekers*, p. 14]



c. 3000 B.C. Approximate date of the supposed origin of the use of

tea in China.



c. 2500 B.C. Earlist historical evidence of the eating of poppy seeds

among the Lake Dwellers on Switzerland. [Ashley Montagu,

The long search for euphoria, *Refelections*, 1:62-69

(May-June), 1966; p. 66]



c. 2000 B.C. Earliest record of prohibitionist teaching, by an

Egyptian priest, who writes to his pupil: "I, thy

superior, forbid thee to go to the taverns. Thou

art degraded like beasts." [W.F. Crafts *et al*.,

*Intoxicating Drinks and Drugs*, p. 5]



c. 350 B.C. Proverbs, 31:6-7: "Give strong drink to him

who is perishing, and wine to those in bitter distress;

let them drink and forget their poverty, and remember

their misery no more."



c. 300 B.C. Theophrastus (371-287 B.C.), Greek naturalist and philosopher,

records what has remained as the earlies undisputed

reference to the use of poppy juice.



c. 250 B.C. Psalms, 104:14-15: "Thou dost cause grass to grow for the

cattle and plants for man to cultivate, that he may

bring forth food from the earth, and wine to gladden

the heart of man.



350 A.D. Earliest mention of tea, in a Chinese dictionary.



4th century St. John Chrysostom (345-407), Bishop of Constantinople:

"I hear man cry, 'Would there be no wine! O folly! O

madness!' Is it wine that causes this abuse? No, for

if you say, 'Would there were no light!' because of

the informers, and would there were no women because

of adultery." [Quoted in Berton Roueche, *The Neutral

Spirit*, pp. 150-151]



c. 450 Babylonian Talmud: "Wine is at the head of all medicines;

where wine is lacking, drugs are necessary." [Quoted in

Burton Stevenson (Ed.), *The Macmillan Book of Proverbs*,

p. 21]



c. 1000 Opium is widely used in China and the far East. [Alfred

A. Lindensmith, *The Addict and the Law*, p. 194]



1493 The use of tobacco is introduced into Europe by

Columbus and his crew returning from America.



c. 1500 According to J.D. Rolleston, a British medical

historian, a medieval Russian cure for drunkenness

consisted in "taking a piece of pork, putting it

secretly in a Jew's bed for nine days, and then giving

it to the drunkard in a pulverized form, who will turn

away from drinking as a Jew would from pork." [Quoted in

Roueche, op. cit. p. 144]



c. 1525 Paracelsus (1490-1541) introduces laudanum, or tincture

of opium, into the practice of medicine.



1600 Shakespeare: "Falstaff. . . . If I had a thousand sons

the / first human principle I would teach them should /

be, to foreswear thin portion and to addict themselves

to sack." ("Sack" is an obsolete term for "sweet wine"

like sherry). [William Shakespeare, *Second Part of King

Henry the Forth*, Act IV, Scene III, lines 133-136]



17th century The prince of the petty state of Waldeck pays ten thalers

to anyone who denounces a coffee drinker. [Griffith Edwards,

Psychoactive substances, *The Listener*, March 23, 1972,

pp. 360-363; p.361]



17th century In Russia, Czar Michael Federovitch executes anyone

on whom tobacco is found. "Czar Alexei Mikhailovitch

rules that anyone caught with tobacco should be

tortured until he gave up the name of the supplier."

[Ibid.]



1613 John Rolf, the husband of the Indian princess Pocahontas,

sends the first shipment of Virginia tobacco from

Jamestown to England.



c. 1650 The use of tobacco is prohibited in Bavaria, Saxony,

and in Zurich, but the prohibitions are ineffective.

Sultan Murad IV of the Ottoman Empire decrees the

death penalty for smoking tobacco: "Whereever there

Sultan went on his travels or on a military expedition

his halting-places were always distinguished by a

terrible rise in executions. Even on the battlefield

he was fond of surprising men in the act of smoking,

when he would punish them by beheading, hanging, quartering

or crushing their hands and feed. . . . Nevertheless,

in spite of all the horrors and persecution. . . the

passion for smoking still persisted." [Edward M. Brecher

et al., *Licit and Illicit Drugs*, p. 212]



1680 Thomas Syndenham (1625-80): "Among the remedies which it

has pleased the Almighty God to give to man to relieve his

sufferings, none is so universal and efficacious as opium."

[Quoted in Louis Goodman and Alfred Gilman, *The

Pharmacological Basis of Theraputics*, First Edition (1941),

p. 186]



1690 The "Act for the Encouraging of the Distillation of Brandy

and Spirits from Corn" is enacted in England. [Roueche, op.

cit. p. 27]



1691 In Luneberg, Germany, the penalty for smoking (tobacco)

is death.



1717 Liquor licenses in Middlesex (England) are granted only

to those who "would take oaths of allegiance and of

belief in the King's supremacy over the Church" [G.E.G.

Catlin, *Liquor Control*, p. 14]



1736 The Gin Act (England) is enacted with the avowed object

of making spirits "come so dear to the consumer that the

poor will not be able to launch into excessive use of them."

This effort results in general lawbreaking and fails to

halt the steady rise in the consumption of even legally

produced and sold liquor. [Ibid., p. 15]



1745 The magistrates of one London division demanded that

"publicans and wine-merchants should swear that they

anathematized the doctrine of Transubstantiation."

[Ibid., p. 14]



1762 Thomas Dover, and English physician, introduces his

prescription for a diaphoretic powder," which he

recommends mainly for the treatment of gout. Soon

named "Dover's powder," this compound becomes the most

widely used opium preparation during the next 150 years.



1785 Benjamin Rush publishes his *Inquiry into the Effects

of Ardent Spirits on the Human Body and Mind*; in it,

he calls the intemperate use of distilled spirits a "disease," and estimates the annual rate of death

due to alcoholism in the United States as "not less than

4000 people" in a population then of less than 6 million.

[Quoted in S. S. Rosenberg (Ed.), *Alcohol and Health*,

p. 26]



1789 The first American temperance society is formed in Litchfield,

Connecticut. [Crafts et. al., op. cit., p. 9]



1790 Benjamin Rush persuades his associates at the Philadelphia

College of Physicians to send an appeal to Congress to

"impose such heavy duties upon all distilled spirits as shall

be effective to restrain their intemperate use in the country."

[Quoted in ibid.]



1792 The first prohibitory laws against opium in China are

promulgated. The punishment decreed for keepers of opium

shops is strangulation.



1792 The Whisky Rebellion, a protest by farmers in western

Pennsylvania against a federal tax on liquor, breaks out

and is put down by overwhelming force sent to the area

by George Washington. Samuel Taylor Coleridge writes

"Kubla Khan" while under the influence of opium.



1800 Napoleon's army, returning from Egypt, introduces cannibis

(hashish, marijuana) into France. Avante-garde artists

and writers in Paris develop their own cannabis ritual,

leading, in 1844, to the establishment of *Le Club

de Haschischins.* [William A. Emboden, Jr., Ritual

Use of Cannabis Sativa L.: A historical-ethnographic

survey, in Peter T. Furst (Ed.), *Flesh of the Gods*,

pp. 214-236; pp. 227-228]



1801 On Jefferson's recommendation, the federal duty on liquor

was abolished. [Catlin, op. cit., p. 113]



1804 Thomas Trotter, an Edinburgh physician, publishes *An Essay,

Medical, Philosophical, and Chemical on Drunkenness and Its

Effects on the Human Body*: "In medical language, I consider

drunkenness, strictly speaking, to be a disease, produced by

a remote cause, and giving birth to actions and movements

in the living body that disorder the functions of health. . .

The habit of drunkenness is a disease of the mind." [Quoted

in Roueche, op. cit. pp. 87-88]



1805 Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Serturner, a German chemist, isolates

and describes morphine.



1822 Thomas De Quincey's *Confessions of an English Opium

Eater* is published. He notes that the opium habit,

like any other habit, must be learned: "Making allowance

for constitutional differences, I should say that *in

less that 120 days* no habit of opium-eating could

be formed strong enough to call for any extraordinary

self-conquest in renouncing it, even suddenly renouncing

it. On Saturday you are an opium eater, on Sunday no longer

such." [Thomas De Quincey, *Confessions of an English Opium

Eater* (1822), p. 143]



1826 The American Society for the Promotion of Temperance is

founded in Boston. By 1833, there are 6,000 local

Temperance societies, with more than one million members.



1839-42 The first Opium War. The British force upon China the

trade in opium, a trade the Chinese had declared illegal..

[Montagu, op. cit. p. 67]



1840 Benjamin Parsons, and English clergyman, declares:

". . . alcohol stands preeminent as a destroyer.

. . . I never knew a person become insane who was not

in the habit of taking a portion of alcohol every day."

Parsons lists forty-two distinct diseases caused by

alcohol, among them inflammation of the brain, scrofula,

mania, dropsy, nephritis, and gout. [Quoted in Roueche,

op. cit. pp. 87-88]



1841 Dr. Jacques Joseph Moreau uses hashish in treatment of mental

patients at the Bicetre.





1842 Abraham Lincoln: "In my judgement, such of us as have never

fallen victims, have been spared more from the absence of

apatite, than from any mental or moral superiority over those

who have. Indeed, I believe, if we take habitual drunkards

as a class, their heads and their hearts will bear an

advantageous comparison with those of any other class."

[Abraham Lincoln, Temperance address, in Roy P. Basler

(Ed.), *The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, Vol. 1,

p. 258]



1844 Cocaine is isolated in its pure form.



1845 A law prohibiting the public sale of liquor is enacted

in New York State. It is repealed in 1847.



1847 The American Medical Association is founded.



1852 Susan B. Anthony establishes the Women's State Temperance

Society of New York, the first such society formed by and

for women. Many of the early feminists, such as Elizabeth

Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and Abby Kelly, are also

ardent prohibitionists. [Andrew Sinclar, *Era of Excess*,

p. 92]



1852 The American Pharmaceutical Association is founded. The

Association's 1856 Constitution lists one of its goals

as: "To as much as possible restrict the dispensing and sale

of medicines to regularly educated druggests and apothecaries.

[Quoted in David Musto, *The American Disease*, p. 258]



1856 The Second Opium War. The British, with help from the French,

extend their powers to distribute opium in China.



1862 Internal Revenue Act enacted imposing a license fee of twenty

dollars on retail liquor dealers, and a tax of one dollar

a barrel on beer and twenty cents a gallon on spirits.

[Sinclare, op. cit. p 152]



1864 Adolf von Baeyer, a twenty-nine-year-old assistant of

Friedrich August Kekule (the discoverer of the molecular

structure of benzene) in Ghent, synthesizes barbituric acid,

the first barbiturate.



1868 Dr. George Wood, a professor of the theory and practice

of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, president

of the American Philosophical Society, and the author

of a leading American test, *Treatise on Therapeutics*,

describes the pharmacological effects of opium as follows:

"A sensation of fullness is felt in the head, soon to be

followed by a universal feeling of delicious ease and

comfort, with an elevation and expansion of the whole moral

and intellectual nature, which is, I think, the most

characteristic of its effects. . . . It seems to make

the individual, for the time, a better and greater man. . . .

The hallucinations, the delirious imaginations of alcoholic

intoxication, are, in general, quite wanting. Along

with this emotional and intellectual elevation, there is

also increased muscular energy; and the capacity to act,

and to bear fatigue, is greatly augmented. [Quoted in

Musto, op. cit. pp. 71-72]



1869 The Prohibition Party is formed. Gerrit Smith, twice

Abolitionist candidate for President, an associate

of John Brown, and a crusading prohibitionist, declares:

"Our involuntary slaves are set free, but our millions

of voluntary slaves still clang their chains. The lot of

the literal slave, of him whom others have enslaved, is indeed

a hard one; nevertheless, it is a paradise compared

with the lot of him who has enslaved himself to alcohol."

[Quoted in Sinclar, op. cit. pp. 83-84]



1874 The Woman's Christian Temperance Union is founded in Cleveland.

In 1883, Frances Willard a leader of the W.C.T.U. forms the

World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union.



1882 The law in the United States, and the world, making

"temperance education" a part of the required course in

public schools is enacted. In 1886, Congress makes such

education mandatory in the District of Columbia, and in

territorial, military, and naval schools. By 1900, all the

states have similar laws. [Crafts et. al., op. cit. p. 72]



1882 The Personal Liberty League of the United States is founded

to oppose the increasing momentum of movements for

compulsory abstinence from alcohol. [Catlin, op. cit. p. 114]



1883 Dr. Theodor Aschenbrandt, a German army physician, secures

a supply of pure cocaine from the pharmaceutical firm of

Merck, issues it to Bavarian soldiers during their

maneuvers, and reports on the beneficial effects of the

drug in increasing the soldiers' ability to endure fatigue.

[Brecher et. al. op. cit. p. 272]



1884 Sigmund Freud treats his depression with cocaine, and reports

feeling "exhilaration and lasting euphoria, which is in no

way differs from the normal euphoria of the healthy person. . .

You perceive an increase in self-control and possess more

vitality and capacity for work. . . . In other words, you

are simply more normal, and it is soon hard to believe that

you are under the influence of a drug." [Quoted in Ernest

Jones, *The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud, Vol. 1, p. 82]



1884 Laws are enacted to make anti-alcohol teaching compulsory

in public schools in New York State. The following year

similar laws are passed in Pennsylvania, with other states

soon following suit.



1885 The Report of the Royal Commission on Opium concludes that

opium is more like the Westerner's liquor than a substance

to be feared and abhorred. [Quoted in Musto, op. cit. p. 29]



1889 The John Hopkins Hospital, in Baltimore, Maryland, is opened.

One of its world-famous founders, Dr. William Stewart Halsted,

is a morphine addict. He continues to use morphine in large

doses throughout his phenomenally successful surgical career

lasting until his death in 1922.



1894 The Report of the Indian Hemp Drug Comission, running to

over three thousand pages in seven volumes, is published.

This inquiry, commissioned by the British government,

concluded: "There is no evidence of any weight regarding the

mental and moral injuries from the moderate use of these

drugs. .. . . Moderation does not lead to excess in hemp any

more than it does in alcohol. Regular, moderate use of ganja

or bhang produces the same effects as moderate and regular

doses of whiskey." The commission's proposal to tax bhang

is never put into effect, in part, perhaps, because one of

the commissioners, an Indian, cautions that Moslem law and

Hindu custom forbid "taxing anything that gives pleasure

to the poor." [Quoted in Norman Taylor, The pleasant assassin:

The story of marihuana, in David Solomon (Ed.) *The

Marijuana Papers*, pp. 31-47, p. 41]



1894 Norman Kerr, and English physician and president of the

British Society for the study of Inebriety, declares:

"Drunkenness has generally been regarded as . . . a sin

a vice, or a crime. . . [But] there is now a consensus of

intelligent opinion that habitual and periodic drunkenness

is often either a symptom or sequel of disease . . . . The

victim can no more resist [alcohol] than an man with ague

can resist shivering. [Quoted in Roueche, op. cit., pp.

107-108]



1898 Diacetylmorphine (heroin) is synthesized in Germany.

It is widely lauded as a "safe preparation free from

addiction-forming properties." [Montagu, op. cit. p. 68]



1900 In an address to the Ecumenical Missionary Conference, Rev.

Wilbur F. Crafts declares: "No Christian celebration of the

completion of nineteen Christian centuries has yet been

arranged. Could there be a fitter one than the general

adoption, by separate and joint action of the great nations

of the world, of the new policy of civilization, in which

Great Britian is leading, the policy of prohibition for the

native races, in the interest of commerce as well as

conscience, since the liquor traffic among child races,

even more manifestly than in civilized lands, injures all

other trades by producing poverty, disease, and death.

Our object, more profoundly viewed, is to create a more

favorable environment for the child races that civilized

nations are essaying to civilize and Christianize."

[Quoted in Crafts, et. al., op. cit., p. 14]



1900 James R. L. Daly, writing in the *Boston Medical and Surgical

Journal*, declares: "It [heroin] possesses many advantages

over morphine. . . . It is not hypnotic; and there is no

danger of acquiring the habit. . . ." [Quoted in Henry

H. Lennard et. al. Methadone treatment (letters),

*Science*, 179:1078-1079 (March 16), 1973; p. 1079]



1901 The Senate adopts a resolution, introduced by Henry Cabot

Lodge, to forbid the sale by American traders of opium

and alcohol "to aboriginal tribes and uncivilized races."

Theses provisions are later extended to include "uncivilized

elements in America itself and in its territories, such as

Indians, Alaskans, the inhabitants of Hawaii, railroad workers,

and immigrants at ports of entry." [Sinclar, op. cit. p. 33]



1902 The Committee on the Acquirement of the Drug Habit of the

American Pharmaceutical Association declares: "If the

Chinaman cannot get along without his 'dope,' we can get

along without him." [Quoted in ibid, p. 17]



1902 George E. Petty, writing in the *Alabama Medical Journal*,

observes: "Many articles have appeared in the medical

literature during the last two years lauding this new agent

. . . . When we consider the fact that heroin is a morphine

derivative . . . it does not seem reasonable that such a

claim could be well founded. It is strange that such a claim

should mislead anyone or that there should be found among

the members of our profession those who would reiterate

and accentuate it without first subjecting it to the most

critical tests, but such is the fact." [Quoted in Lennard

et. al., op. cit. p. 1079]



1903 The composition of Coca-Cola is changed, caffeine replacing

the cocaine it contained until this time. {Musto, op. cit.

p. 43]



1904 Charles Lyman, president of the International Reform Bureau,

petitions the President of the United States "to induce

Great Britain to release China from the enforced opium

traffic. . . .We need not recall in detail that China

prohibited the sale of opium except as a medicine, until

the sale was forced upon that country by Great Britian

in the opium war of 1840." [Quoted in Crafts et al., op.

cit. p. 230]



1905 Senator Henry W. Blair, in a letter to Rev. Wilbur F.

Crafts, Superintendent of the International Reform

Bureau: "The temperance movement must include all poisonous

substances which create unnatural appetite, and international

prohibition is the goal." [Quoted in ibid.]



1906 The first Pure Food and Drug Act becomes law; until its

enactment, it was possible to buy, in stores or by mail order

medicines containing morphine, cocaine, or heroin, and without

their being so labeled.



1906 *Squibb's Materia Medical* lists heroin as "a remedy of much

value . . . is is also used as a mild anodyne and as a

substitute for morphine in combatting the morphine habit.

[Quoted in Lennard et al., op. cit. p. 1079]



1909 The United States prohibits the importation of smoking

opium. [Lawrence Kolb, *Drug Addiction*, pp. 145-146]



1910 Dr. Hamilton Wright, considered by some the father of U.S.

anti-narcotics laws, reports that American contractors give

cocaine to their Negro employees to get more work out of

them. [Musto, op. cit. p. 180]



1912 A writer in *Century* magazine proclaims: "The relation

of tobacco, especially in the form of cigarettes, and

alcohol and opium is a very close one. . . . Morphine is

the legitimate consequence of alcohol, and alcohol is the

legitimate consequence of tobacco. Cigarettes, drink,

opium, is the logical and regular series." And a physician

warns: "[There is] no energy more destructive of soul, mind,

and body, or more subversive of good morals than the

cigarette. The fight against the cigarette is a fight for

civilization." [Sinclar, op. cit., p. 180]



1912 The first international Opium Convention meets at the

Hague, and recommends various measures for the international

control of the trade in opium. Supsequent Opium Conventions

are held in 1913 and 1914.



1912 Phenobarbital is introduced into therapeutics under the trade

name of Luminal.



1913 The Sixteenth Amendment, creating the legal authority for

federal income tax, is enacted. Between 1870 and 1915,

the tax on liquor provides from one-half to two-thirds

of the whole of the internal revenue of the United States,

amounting, after the turn of the century, to about $200

million annually. The Sixteenth Amendment thus makes possible,

just seven years later, the Eighteenth Amendment.



1914 Dr. Edward H Williams cites Dr. Christopher Kochs "Most

of the attack upon white women of the South are the

direct result of the cocaine crazed Negro brain."

Dr. Williams concluded that " . . Negro cocaine fiends

are now a known Southern menace."

[New York Times, Feb. 8, 1914]





1914 The Harrison Narcotic Act is enacted, controlling the

sale of opium and opium derivatives, and cocaine.



1914 Congressman Richard P. Hobson of Alabama, urging a prohibition

amendment to the Constitution, asserts: "Liquor will actually

make a brute out of a Negro, causing him to commit unnatural

crimes. The effect is the same on the white man, though

the white man being further evolved it takes longer time

to reduce him to the same level." Negro leaders join

the crusade against alcohol. [Ibid., p. 29]



1916 The *Pharmacopoeia of the United States* drops whiskey and

brandy from its list of drugs. Four years later, American

physicians begin prescribing these "drugs" in quantities

never before prescribed by doctors.



1917 The president of the American Medical Association endorses

national prohibition. The House of Delegates of the

Association passes a resolution stating: "Resolved, The

American Medical Association opposes the use of alcohol

as a beverage; and be it further Resolved, That the use

of alcohol as a therapeutic agent should be discourages."

By 1928, physicians make an estimated $40,000,000 annually

by writing prescriptions for whiskey." [Ibid. p. 61]



1917 The American Medical Association passes a resolution declaring

that "sexual continence is compatible with health and is

the best prevention of venereal infections," and one of

the methods for controlling syphilis is by controlling alcohol.

Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels prohibits the practice

of distributing contraceptives to sailors bound on shore

leave, and Congress passes laws setting up "dry and decent

zones" around military camps. "Many barkeepers are fined

for selling liquor to men in uniform. Only at Coney Island

could soldiers and sailors change into the grateful anonymity

of bathing suits and drink without molestation from patriotic

passers-by." [Ibid. pp. 117-118]



1918 The Anti-Saloon League calls the "liquor traffic" "un-American,"

pro-German, crime-producing, food-wasting, youth-corrupting,

home-wrecking, [and] treasonable." [Quoted in ibid. p. 121]



1919 The Eighteenth (Prohibition) Amendment is added to the U.S.

Constitution. It is repealed in 1933.



1920 The U.S. Department of Agriculture publishes a pamphlet

urging Americans to grow cannabis (marijuana) as a profitable

undertaking. [David F. Musto, An historical perspective on

legal and medical responses to substance abuse, *Villanova

Law Review*, 18:808-817 (May), 1973; p. 816]



1920-1933 The use of alcohol is prohibited in the United States.

In 1932 alone, approximately 45,000 persons receive jail

sentences for alcohol offenses. During the first eleven

years of the Volstead Act, 17,971 persons are appointed

to the Prohibition Bureau. 11,982 are terminated "without

prejudice," and 1,604 are dismissed for bribery, extortion,

theft, falsification of records, conspiracy, forgery, and

perjury. [Fort, op. cit. p. 69]



1921 The U.S. Treasury Departmen issues regulations outlining

the treatment of addiction permitted under the Harrison

Act. In Syracuse, New York, the narcotics clinic doctors

report curing 90 per cent of their addicts. [Lindensmith,

*The Addict and the Law*, p. 141]



1921 Thomas S. Blair, M.D., chief of the Bureau of Drug Control

of the Pennsylvania Department of Health, publishes a paper

in the *Journal of the American Medical Association* in which

he characterizes the Indian peyote religion a "habit

indulgence in certain cactaceous plants," calls the belief

system "superstition" and those who sell peyote "dope vendors,"

and urges the passage of a bill in Congress that would prohibit

the use of peyote among the Indian tribes of the Southwest.

He concludes with this revealing plea for abolition: "The

great difficulty in suppressing this habit among the Indians

arises from the fact that the commercial interests involved

in the peyote traffic are strongly entrenched, and they

exploit the Indian. . . . Added to this is the superstition

of the Indian who believes in the Peyote Church. As soon

as an effort is made to suppress peyote, the cry is raised

that it is unconstitutional to do so and is an invasion of

religious liberty. Suppose the Negros of the South had

Cocaine Church!" [Thomas S. Blair, Habit indulgence in

certain cactaceous plants among the Indians, *Journal

of the American Medical Association*, 76:1033-1034 (April

9), 1921; p. 1034]



1921 Cigarettes are illegal in fourteen states, and ninety-two

anti-cigarette bills are pending in twenty-eight states.

Young women are expelled from college for smoking cigarettes.

[Brecher et al., op. cit. p. 492]



1921 The Council of the American Medical Association refuses

to confirm the Associations 1917 Resolution on alcohol.

In the first six months after the enactment of the Volstead

Act, more than 15,000 physicians and 57,000 druggests and

drug manufacturers apply for licenses to prescribe and sell

liquor. [Sinclair, op. cit., p. 492]



1921 Alfred C. Prentice, M.D. a member of the Committee on

Narcotic Drugs of the American Medical Association, declares

"Public opinion regarding the vice of drug addiction has

been deliberately and consistently corrupted through

propaganda in both the medical and lay press. . . . The

shallow pretense that drug addiction is a 'disease'. . . .

has been asserted and urged in volumes of 'literature'

by self-styled 'specialists.'" [Alfred C Prentice, The

Problem of the narcotic drug addict, *Journal of the

American Medical Association*, 76:1551-1556; p. 1553]



1924 The manufacture of heroin is prohibited in the United

States.



1925 Robert A. Schless: "I believe that most drug addiction today

is due directly to the Harrison Anti-Narcotic Act, which

forbids the sale of narcotics without a physician's

prescription. . . . Addicts who are broke act as *agent

provocateurs* for the peddlers, being rewarded by gifts

of heroin or credit for supplies. The Harrison Act made

the drug peddler, and the drug peddler makes drug addicts."

[Robert A. Schless, The drug addict, *American Mercury*,

4:196-199 (Feb.), 1925; p. 198]



1928 In a nationwide radio broadcast entitled "The Struggle

of Mankind Against Its Deadlist Foe," celebrating the

second annual Narcotic Education Week, Richmond P. Hobson,

prohibition crusader and anti-narcotics propagandist,

declares: "Suppose it were announced that there were more

than a million lepers among our people. Think what a shock

the announcement would produce! Yet drug addiction is far

more incurable than leprosy, far more tragic to its victims,

and is spreading like a moral and physical scourge. . . .

Most of the daylight robberies, daring holdups, cruel murders

and similar crimes of violence are now known to be committed

chiefly by drug addicts, who constitute the primary cause

of our alarming crime wave. Drug addiction is more

communicable and less curable that leprosy. . . .

Upon the issue hangs the perpetuation of civilization,

the destiny of the world, and the future of the human

race." [Quoted in Musto, *The American Disease*, p. 191]



1928 It is estimated that in Germany one out of every hundred

physicians is a morphine addict, consuming 0.1 grams of

the alkaloid or more per day. [Eric Hesse, *Narcotics and

Drug Addiction*, p. 41]



1929 About one gallon of denatured industrial in ten is

diverted into bootleg liquor. About forty Americans

per million die each year from drinking illegal alcohol,

mainly as a result of methyl (wood) alcohol poisoning.

[Sinclare, op. cit. p. 201]



1930 The Federal Bureau of Narcotics is formed. Many of its

agents, including its first commissioner, Harry J. Anslinger,

are former prohibition agents.



1935 The American Medical Association passes a resolution declaring

that "alcoholics are valid patients." [Quoted in Neil Kessel

and Henry Walton, *Alcoholism*, p. 21]



1936 The Pan-American Coffee Burreau is organized to promote

coffee use in the U.S. Between 1938 and 1941 coffee

consumption increased 20%. From 1914 to 1938 consumption

had increased 20%. [Coffee, *Encyclopedia Britannica* (1949),

Vol. 5, p. 975A]



1937 Shortly before the Marijuana Tax Act, Commissioner Harry

J. Anslinger writes: "How many murders, suicides, robberies,

criminal assaults, hold-ups, burglaries, and deeds of

maniacal insanity it [marijuana] causes each year, especially

among the young, can only be conjectured." [Quoted in

John Kaplan, *Marijuana*, p. 92]



1937 The Marijuana Tax Act is enacted.



1938 Since the enactment of the Harrison Act in 1914, 25,000

physicians have been arraigned on narcotics charges, and

3,000 have served penitentiary sentences. [Kolb, op. cit.

p. 146]



1938 Dr. Albert Hoffman, a chemist at Sandoz Laboratories in

Basle, Switzerland, synthesizes LSD. Five years later he

inadvertently ingests a small amount of it, and observes and

reports effects on himself.



1941 Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek orders the complete suppression

of the poppy; laws are enacted providing the death penalty

for anyone guilty of cultivating the poppy, manufacturing

opium, or offering it for sale. [Lindensmith, *The Addict

and the Law*, 198]



1943 Colonel J.M. Phalen, editor of the *Military Surgeon*,

declares in an editorial entitled "The Marijuana Bugaboo":

"The smoking of the leaves, flowers, and seeds of Cannibis

sativa is no more harmful than the smoking of tobacco. . . .

It is hoped that no witch hunt will be instituted in the

military service over a problem that does not exist."

[Quoted in ibid. p. 234]



1946 According to some estimates there are 40,000,000 opium smokers

in China. [Hesse, op. cit. p. 24]





1949 Ludwig von Mises, leading modern free-market economist

and social philosopher: "Opium and morphine are certainly

dangerous, habit-forming drugs. But once the principle

is admitted that is the duty of government to protect

the individual against his own foolishness, no serious

objections can be advanced against further encroachments.

A good case could be made out in favor of the prohibition

of alcohol and nicotine. And why limit the governments

benevolent providence to the protection of the individual's

body only? Is is not the harm a man can inflect on his

mind and soul even more disastrous than any bodily

evils? Why not prevent him from reading bad books and

seeing bad plays, from looking at bad paintings and statues

and listening to bad music? The mischief done by bad

ideologies, surely, is much more pernicious, both for

the individual and for the whole society, than that

done by narcotic drugs." [Ludwig von Mises, *Human Action*,

pp. 728-729]



1951 According to United Nations estimates, there are approximately

200 million marijuana users in the world, the major places

being India, Egypt, North Africa, Mexico, and the United

States. [Jock Young, *The Drug Takers*, p. 11]



1951 Twenty thousand pound of opium, three hundred pounds of

heroin, and various opium-smoking devices are publicly

burned in Canton China. Thirty-seven opium addicts

are executed in the southwest of China. [Margulies,

China has no drug problem--why? *Parade*, 0ct. 15 1972,

p. 22]



1954 Four-fifths of the French people questioned about wine

assert that wine is "good for one's health," and one quarter

hold that it is "indispensable." It is estimated that a

third of the electorate in France receives all or part of

its income from the production or sale of alcoholic

beverages; and that there is one outlet for every forty-

five inhabitants. [Kessel and Walton, op. cit. pp. 45, 73]



1955 The Prasidium des Deutschen Arztetages declares: "Treatment

of the drug addict should be effected in the closed sector

of a psychiatric institution. Ambulatory treatment is useless

and in conflict, moreover, with principles of medical

ethics." The view is quoted approvingly, as representative

of the opinion of "most of the authors recommending

commitment to an institution," by the World Health

Organization in 1962. [World Health Organization,

*The Treatment of Drug Addicts*, p. 5]



1955 The Shah of Iran prohibits the cultivation and use of opium,

used in the country for thousands of years; the prohibition

creates a flourishing illicit market in opium. In 1969

the prohibition is lifted, opium growing is resumed under

state inspection, and more than 110,000 persons receive

opium from physicians and pharmacies as "registered addicts."

[Henry Kamm, They shoot opium smugglers in Iran, but . . ."

*The New York Times Magazine*, Feb. 11, 1973, pp. 42-45]



1956 The Narcotics Control Act in enacted; it provides the death

penalty, if recommended by the jury, for the sale of heroin

to a person under eighteen by one over eighteen. [Lindesmith,

*The Addict and the Law*, p. 26]



1958 Ten percent of the arable land in Italy is under viticulture;

two million people earn their living wholly or partly from

the production or sale of wine. [Kessel and Walton, op. cit.,

p. 46]



1960 The United States report to the United Nations Commission on

Narcotic Drugs for 1960 states: "There were 44,906 addicts

in the United States on December 31, 1960 . . ." [Lindesmith,

*The Addict and The Law*, p. 100]



1961 The United Nations' "Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

of 10 March 1961" is ratified. Among the obligations of

the signatory states are the following: "Art. 42. Know

users of drugs and persons charges with an offense under

this Law may be committed by an examining magistrate

to a nursing home. . . . Rules shall be also laid down

for the treatment in such nursing homes of unconvicted

drug addicts and dangerous alcoholics." [Charles Vaille,

A model law for the application of the Single Convention

on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, *United Nations Bulletin on

Narcotics*, 21:1-12 (April-June), 1961]



1963 Tobacco sales total $8.08 billion, of which $3.3 billion go

to federal, state, and local taxes. A news release from

the tobacco industry proudly states: "Tobacco products

pass across sales counters more frequently than anything

else--except money." [Tobacco: After publicity surge

Surgeon General's Report seems to have little enduring

effect, *Science*, 145:1021-1022 (Sept. 4), 1964; p. 1021]



1964 The British Medical Association, in a Memorandum of Evidence

to the Standing Medical Advisory Committee's Special Sub-

committee on Alcoholism, declares: "We feel that in some very

bad cases, compulsory detention in hospital offer the only

hope of successful treatment. . . . We believe that some

alcoholics would welcome compulsory removal and detention

in hospital until treatment is completed." [Quoted in

Kessel and Walton, op. cit. p. 126]



1964 An editorial in *The New York Times* calls attention

to the fact that "the Government continues to be the tobacco

industry's biggest booster. The Department of Agriculture

lost $16 million in supporting the price of tobacco in the

last fiscal year, and stands to loose even more because it

has just raised the subsidy that tobacco growers will get

on their 1964 crop. At the same time, the Food for Peace

program is getting rid of surplus stocks of tobacco abroad."

[Editorial, Bigger agricultural subsidies. . .even more for

tobacco, *The New York Times*, Feb. 1, 1964, p. 22]



1966 Sen. Warren G. Magnuson makes public a program, sponsored by

the Agriculture Department, to subsidize "attempts to increase

cigarette consumption abroad. . . . The Department is paying

to stimulate cigarette smoking in a travelogue for $210,000

to subsidize cigarette commercials in Japan, Thailand,

and Austria." An Agriculture Department spokesman

corroborates that "the two programs were prepared under

a congressional authorization to expand overseas markets

for U.S. farm commodities." [Edwin B. Haakinsom, Senator

shocked at U.S. try to hike cigarette use abroad,

*Syracuse Herald-American*, Jan. 9, 1966, p. 2]



1966 Congress enacts the "Narcotics Addict Rehabilitation Act,

inaugurating a federal civil commitment program for addicts.





1966 C. W. Sandman, Jr. chairman of the New Jersey Narcotic Drug

Study Commission, declares that LSD is "the greatest threat

facing the country today . . . more dangerous than the

Vietnam War." [Quoted in Brecher et al., op. cit. p. 369]



1967 New York State's "Narcotics Addiction Control Program"

goes into effect. It is estimated to cost $400 million

in three years, and is hailed by Government Rockefeller

as the "start of an unending war . . ." Under the new

law, judges are empowered to commit addicts for compulsory

treatment for up to five years. [Murray Schumach, Plan for

addicts will open today: Governor hails start, *The New

York Times*, April 1, 1967]



1967 The tobacco industry in the United States spends an estimated

$250 million on advertising smoking. [Editorial, It

depends on you, *Health News* (New York State), 45:1

(March), 1968]



1968 The U.S. tobacco industry has gross sales of $8 billion.

Americans smoke 544 billion cigarettes. [Fort, op. cit.

p. 21]



1968 Canadians buy almost 3 billion aspirin tablets and approximately

56 million standard does of amphetamines. About 556 standard

doses of barbituates are also produced or imported for

consumption in Canada. [Canadian Government's Commission

of Inquiry, *The Non-Medical Uses of Drugs*, p. 184



1968 Six to seven percent of all prescriptions written under the

British National Health Service are for barbituates; it is

estimated that about 500,000 British are regular users.

[Young, op. cit. p. 25]



1968 Brooklyn councilman Julius S. Moskowitz charges that the

work of New York City's Addiction Services Agency, under

its retiring Commissioner, Dr. Efren Ramierez, was a

"fraud," and that "not a single addict has been cured."

[Charles G. Bennett, Addiction agency called a "fraud,"

*New York Times*, Dec. 11, 1968, p. 47]



1969 U.S. production and value of some medical chemicals:

barbituates: 800,000 pounds, $2.5 million; aspirin

(exclusive of salicylic acid) 37 milliion pounds,

value "withheld to avoid disclosing figures for

individual producers"; salicylic acid: 13 million

pounds, $13 million; tranquilizers: 1.5 million

pounds, $7 million. [*Statistical Abstracts of the

United States*, 1971 92nd Annual Edition, p. 75]



1969 The parents of 6,000 secondary-level students in

Clifton, New Jersey, are sent letters by the Board

of Education asking permission to conduct saliva tests

on their children to determine whether or not they use

marijuana. [Saliva tests asked for Jersey youths on

marijuana use, *New York Times*, Apr. 11, 1969, p. 12]



1970 Dr. Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, Nobel Laureate in Medicine and

Physiology, in reply to being asked what he would do if

he were twenty today: "I would share with my classmates

rejection of the whole world as it is--all of it. Is there

any point in studying and work? Fornication--at least that

is something good. What else is there to do? Fornicate

and take drugs against the terrible strain of idiots who

govern the world." [Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, in *The New

York Times*, Feb. 20, 1970, quoted in Mary Breastead, *Oh!

Sex Education!*, p. 359]



1971 President Nixon declares that "America's Public Enemy

No. 1 is drug abuse." In a message to Congress, the President

calls for the creation of a Special Action Office of Drug

Abuse Prevention. [The New Public Enemy No. 1, *Time*,

June 28, 1971, p. 18]



1971 On June 30, 1971, President Cvedet Sunay of Turkey decrees

that all poppy cultivation and opium production will be

forbidden beginning in the fall of 1972. [Patricia M Wald

et al. (Eds.), *Dealing with Drug Abuse*, p. 257]



1972 Myles J. Ambrose, Special Assistant Attorney General of

the United States: "As of 1960, the Bureau of Narcotics

estimated that we had somewhere in the neighborhood

of 55,000 addicts . . . they estimate now the figure is

560,000. [Quoted in *U.S. News and World Report*, April

3, 1972, p. 38]



1972 The Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs proposes

restricting the use of barbituates on the ground that they

"are more dangerous than heroin." [Restrictions proposed

on barbituate sales, *Syracuse Herald-Journal*, Mar 16,

1972, p. 32]



1972 The house votes 366 to 0 to authorize "a $1 billion,

three-year federal attack on drug abuse." [$1 billion

voted for drug fight, *Syracuse Herald-Journal*, March

16, 1972, p. 32]



1972 At the Bronx house of corrections, out of a total of 780

inmates, approximately 400 are given tranquilizers such

as Valium, Elavil, Thorazine, and Librium. "'I think they

[the inmates] would be doing better without some of the

medication,' said Capt. Robert Brown, a correctional officer.

He said that in a way the medications made his job harder

. . . rather than becoming calm, he said, an inmate who

had become addicted to his medication 'will do anything

when he can't get it.'" [Ronald Smothers, Muslims: What's

behind the violence, *The New York Times*, Dec. 26, 1972,

p. 18]



1972 In England, the pharmacy cost of heroin is $.04 per grain

(60 mg.), or $.00067 per mg. In the United States, the

street price is $30 to $90 per grain, or $.50 or $1.50

per mg. [Wald et al. (Eds.) op. cit. p. 28]



1973 A nationwide Gallop poll reveals that 67 percent

of the adults interviewed "support the proposal of New York

Governer Nelson Rockefeller that all sellers of hard drugs

be given life imprisonment without possibility of parole."

[George Gallup, Life for pushers, *Syracuse Herald-American*,

Feb. 11, 1973]



1973 Michael R. Sonnenreich, Executive Director of the National

Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse, declares: "About

four years ago we spent a total of $66.4 million for the

entire federal effort in the drug abuse area. . . .

This year we have spent $796.3 million and the budget

estimates that have been submitted indicate that we will

exceed the $1 billion mark. When we do so, we become,

for want of a better term, a drug abuse industrial

complex.: [Michael R. Sonnenreich, Discussion of the

Final Report of the National Commission on Marijuana

and Drug Abuse, *Villanova Law Review*, 18:817-827 (May),

1973; p. 818]



197? Operation Intercept. All vehicles returning from Mexico

are checked by Nixon's order. Long lines occur and, as

usual no dent is made in drug traffic.



1981 Congress ammends the 1878 Posse Comitatus Act, which

forbids the armed forces to enforce civil law, so that

the military could provide surveillance planes and ships

for interdiction purposes.



1984 U.S. busts 10,000 pounds of marijuana on farms in Mexico.

The seizures, made on five farms in an isolated section of

Chihuahua state, suggest a 70 percent increase in estimates

that total U.S. consumption was 13,000 to 14,000 tons in 1982.

Furthermore, the seizures add up to nearly eight times the

1300 tons that officials had calculated Mexico produced

in 1983. [the San Francisco Chronicle, Saturday,

November 24, 1984]



1985 Pentagon spends $40 million on interdiction.



1986 The Communist Party boss, Boris Yeltsin said that the

Moscow school system is rife with drug addiction,

drunkenness and principles that take bribes. He

said that drug addiction has become such a problem

that there are 3700 registered addicts in Moscow. [The

San Francisco Chronicle, Sept. 22, 1986, p. 12]

Post Quality Evaluations:
Solid.
  #2  
Old 13-01-2008, 01:24
trptamene trptamene is offline
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Re: Timeline history of Drug Use and Prohibition

Sweetness, maybe this should/could be a wiki article?
  #3  
Old 13-01-2008, 01:31
Paracelsus Paracelsus is offline
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Re: Timeline history of Drug Use and Prohibition

I don't think book excerpts should be in the Drugs Wiki. Same for other copyrighted work. Even if credit is given, it still doesn't seem right to include a huge quote in the Wiki.

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