Drugs-Forum  
Home Wiki Studies Forum Groups Blog Video Images News
Go Back   Drugs Forum > DRUG-FORUMS > Amphetamine > Methamphetamine
Mark Forums Read
Register Tags

Notices

 
Thread Tools
  #1  
Old 06-01-2010, 08:15
Speedball Speedball is offline
Account Awaiting Email Confirmation.
 
Join Date: 31-12-2009
Male from United Kingdom
Posts: 11
Speedball needs to post very carefully to avoid a ban by negative reputation.
Points: 25, Level: 1 Points: 25, Level: 1 Points: 25, Level: 1
Activity: 0% Activity: 0% Activity: 0%
How does meth damage the brain?

Hi, I've searched around but haven't really found what I need to know.

Would occasional use of meth cause brain damage? permanent or temporary? Which part does it damage, dopamine pathways?

Would a single use cause damage?

Thanks.
  #2  
Old 06-01-2010, 20:09
Abuser Abuser is offline
Banned
 
Join Date: 18-07-2009
23 y/o Male
Posts: 41
Abuser needs to UTFSE some more before posting.
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

yes, a single use will cause damage...maybe not noticeably so though.

the more you use it the more it fucks with your mind.... thats how meth damages the brain. try it... but Don't like it
  #3  
Old 07-01-2010, 00:43
Phenoxide Phenoxide is offline
Research Chemicals Forum
Super Moderator
 
Join Date: 11-10-2009
Male from United Kingdom
Posts: 4,749
Phenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond repute
Points: 21,254, Level: 21 Points: 21,254, Level: 21 Points: 21,254, Level: 21
Activity: 45.7% Activity: 45.7% Activity: 45.7%
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

Methamphetamine and all amphetamines for that matter are unfortunately quite neurotoxic. As you have gathered toxicity to the dopaminergic system is the primary effect. Given that these systems don't exist in isolation it's quite probable that there are also secondary implications for the function of other neurotransmitter systems, though these have not been widely studied. Here's a link to a nice review covering what is currently known about the mechanisms of methamphetamine toxicity, focussing on dopaminergic stress:

http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/loc...57&linkid=8444

To summarize their findings, the elevated dopamine and glutamate levels caused by meth result in the generation of a lot of free radical species. These reactive molecules cause extensive damage to cells, often resulting in irreversible damage and programmed cell death. So even one-off use of meth will kill dopaminergic neurons. Oxidative damage like this is actually happening all the time throughout the body, but this drug massively accelerates the process in certain tissues.

The brain does however have some ability to renew and re-wire. It doesn't repair like-for-like but its generally plastic enough to keep people functional over a lifetime. The big caveat is that this is a slow process and its not 100% effective, especially with heavy damage. The brain can probably tolerate very occasional meth use well, provided it's given ample time to recover after each exposure. The problem is that meth isn't generally an occasional treat. Frequent use eventually results in significant neural damage which may be beyond repair. When this line is crossed, permanent psychological and neurological deficits soon follow. Even occasional use over a number of years is likely to have a cumulative effect that may cause notable changes in mental performance.

Effectively any meth use ages the brain much faster than is natural. The more meth and the more frequently it's done, the greater the risk of irreversible damage. That said it's hard to predict for any individual how often they could do it and for how long before the neurotoxicity resulted in notable symptoms. One thing that's clear from the literature is that the risk of meth-related neurotoxicity is very high compared to most other drugs, at least in part because it is so addictive that users don't give their brain a fighting chance of recovery.

Post Quality Evaluations:
Great explanation. Amen.
wonderful and thorough explanation
nice info. Good link!
well written, and very informative!
love it! great info.
  #4  
Old 07-01-2010, 01:27
Blue Eyed Darner Blue Eyed Darner is offline
Silver Member
 
Join Date: 10-10-2009
31 y/o Male from United States
Posts: 19
Blue Eyed Darner is a decent psychonaut.
Points: 87, Level: 1 Points: 87, Level: 1 Points: 87, Level: 1
Activity: 0% Activity: 0% Activity: 0%
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

Quote:
Originally Posted by Phenoxide View Post
Methamphetamine and all amphetamines for that matter are unfortunately quite neurotoxic.
Really? Are all amphetamines neurotoxic at all dosages? Considering the fact that many amphetamines including methamphetamine are medications that are legally prescribed often for extended periods of time without signs of the extreme neurotoxicity you imply would it not be fair to say it is more the dose and not the chem that causes the extreme symptoms often experienced by tweakers? As I see it the dangers posed by meth are more to do with its extreme potency and the typical usage patterns of street users rather than some innate brain melting ability of the chem.
  #5  
Old 07-01-2010, 02:29
Phenoxide Phenoxide is offline
Research Chemicals Forum
Super Moderator
 
Join Date: 11-10-2009
Male from United Kingdom
Posts: 4,749
Phenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond reputePhenoxide is a true resource and beyond repute
Points: 21,254, Level: 21 Points: 21,254, Level: 21 Points: 21,254, Level: 21
Activity: 45.7% Activity: 45.7% Activity: 45.7%
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

Yes, all amphetamines will display some degree of neurotoxicity at psychoactive doses. Neurotoxicity is a physiological process, not the subjective assessment of mental function. The mechanisms of toxicity are a direct byproduct of amphetamine activity and as such are not restricted to high doses. What isn't easily predicted is at what point this neurotoxicity leads to recognizable cognitive impairment. Heavy, frequent use will put the brain under more stress so will accelerate the process for sure. Then again, there's evidence to suggest that even a typical prescription of amphetamine over the course of a few weeks results in indicators of dopaminergic stress, so could lead to similar problems over the long-term. It's probabilistic - adverse effects are less likely with lower/occasional use but not precluded.

There's actually very little known about the long-term effects of licit amphetamine use, especially for lifelong maintenance treatments. There's been no clinical studies to chart this. One shouldn't assume that because something has a history of medical use that it has been confirmed to be entirely safe. All an FDA approval suggests is that for a majority of users the benefits of the drug will outweigh the negatives over the timeframe covered by a clinical trial.
  #6  
Old 08-01-2010, 06:03
Blue Eyed Darner Blue Eyed Darner is offline
Silver Member
 
Join Date: 10-10-2009
31 y/o Male from United States
Posts: 19
Blue Eyed Darner is a decent psychonaut.
Points: 87, Level: 1 Points: 87, Level: 1 Points: 87, Level: 1
Activity: 0% Activity: 0% Activity: 0%
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

Quote:
Originally Posted by Phenoxide View Post
Yes, all amphetamines will display some degree of neurotoxicity at psychoactive doses. Neurotoxicity is a physiological process, not the subjective assessment of mental function. The mechanisms of toxicity are a direct byproduct of amphetamine activity and as such are not restricted to high doses.
Yes it does seem after some reading that you speak the truth.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Phenoxide View Post
What isn't easily predicted is at what point this neurotoxicity leads to recognizable cognitive impairment. Heavy, frequent use will put the brain under more stress so will accelerate the process for sure. Then again, there's evidence to suggest that even a typical prescription of amphetamine over the course of a few weeks results in indicators of dopaminergic stress, so could lead to similar problems over the long-term.
Care to share this research?

Quote:
Originally Posted by Phenoxide View Post
There's actually very little known about the long-term effects of licit amphetamine use, especially for lifelong maintenance treatments. There's been no clinical studies to chart this.
Alarming.
  #7  
Old 24-01-2011, 12:13
Jjacobsen Jjacobsen is offline
Newbie
 
Join Date: 21-01-2011
Male from United States
Posts: 8
Jjacobsen is an unknown quantity at this point
Points: 10, Level: 1 Points: 10, Level: 1 Points: 10, Level: 1
Activity: 0.2% Activity: 0.2% Activity: 0.2%
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

So frustrating that noone seems to know exactly how affected your brain is by say using 4-5 times per year for 7 years, which is what a friend did. Guess he'll have to write memoir.
  #8  
Old 24-01-2011, 12:28
PsychoActivist PsychoActivist is offline
Palladium Member
 
Join Date: 27-10-2008
33 y/o Male from United States
Posts: 522
PsychoActivist must live here.PsychoActivist must live here.PsychoActivist must live here.PsychoActivist must live here.PsychoActivist must live here.PsychoActivist must live here.PsychoActivist must live here.PsychoActivist must live here.
Points: 1,920, Level: 6 Points: 1,920, Level: 6 Points: 1,920, Level: 6
Activity: 0.8% Activity: 0.8% Activity: 0.8%
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

Quote:
Originally Posted by Jjacobsen View Post
So frustrating that noone seems to know exactly how affected your brain is by say using 4-5 times per year for 7 years, which is what a friend did. Guess he'll have to write memoir.
I'm gonna go out a limb here and say that at 4-5 times a year for 7 years, there probably has not been much damage done. This only equals about 35 times max... I do not have any links to back this up and if anyone disagrees or DOES have any links PLEASE chime in...

To answer the OP here is a post I made in another thread about the long-term effects and depletion of dopamine..

Here is a similar thread.. within it, I made a post with a few simplified notes on amphetamines and dopamine depletion.. there are many other good posts in this thread not to be overlooked :
http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=136722
  #9  
Old 24-01-2011, 13:15
vorsybl vorsybl is offline
Banned
 
Join Date: 01-01-2011
26 y/o Male from United States
Posts: 89
vorsybl needs to UTFSE some more before posting.
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

Quote:
Originally Posted by Phenoxide View Post
Methamphetamine and all amphetamines for that matter are unfortunately quite neurotoxic. As you have gathered toxicity to the dopaminergic system is the primary effect. Given that these systems don't exist in isolation it's quite probable that there are also secondary implications for the function of other neurotransmitter systems, though these have not been widely studied. Here's a link to a nice review covering what is currently known about the mechanisms of methamphetamine toxicity, focussing on dopaminergic stress:

http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/loc...57&linkid=8444

To summarize their findings, the elevated dopamine and glutamate levels caused by meth result in the generation of a lot of free radical species. These reactive molecules cause extensive damage to cells, often resulting in irreversible damage and programmed cell death. So even one-off use of meth will kill dopaminergic neurons. Oxidative damage like this is actually happening all the time throughout the body, but this drug massively accelerates the process in certain tissues.

The brain does however have some ability to renew and re-wire. It doesn't repair like-for-like but its generally plastic enough to keep people functional over a lifetime. The big caveat is that this is a slow process and its not 100% effective, especially with heavy damage. The brain can probably tolerate very occasional meth use well, provided it's given ample time to recover after each exposure. The problem is that meth isn't generally an occasional treat. Frequent use eventually results in significant neural damage which may be beyond repair. When this line is crossed, permanent psychological and neurological deficits soon follow. Even occasional use over a number of years is likely to have a cumulative effect that may cause notable changes in mental performance.

Effectively any meth use ages the brain much faster than is natural. The more meth and the more frequently it's done, the greater the risk of irreversible damage. That said it's hard to predict for any individual how often they could do it and for how long before the neurotoxicity resulted in notable symptoms. One thing that's clear from the literature is that the risk of meth-related neurotoxicity is very high compared to most other drugs, at least in part because it is so addictive that users don't give their brain a fighting chance of recovery.
Does cocaine create the same free radical byproducts?
  #10  
Old 26-01-2011, 19:00
stealthninjax stealthninjax is offline
Banned
 
Join Date: 07-06-2007
29 y/o Male from United States
Posts: 41
stealthninjax needs to UTFSE some more before posting.
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

Swim has been using meth for 4+ years and find that swim mental health is in great shape. All evidence of neurotoxicity can not be proven.
  #11  
Old 28-01-2011, 08:14
Doctor Meth Doctor Meth is offline
Account Awaiting Email Confirmation.
 
Join Date: 20-01-2011
Male from United States
Posts: 43
Doctor Meth is learning how to become a psychonaut.
Points: 69, Level: 1 Points: 69, Level: 1 Points: 69, Level: 1
Activity: 0% Activity: 0% Activity: 0%
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

quoted from an earlier thread of mine...

. . . .production of neurotransmitter chemicals, such as serotonin and norepinepherine, that may help restore cognition and memory function

In order to assist the brain in healing damaged neurotransmitters, vitamins and supplements that contain amino acids are essential. For example, GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid), seratonin and dopamine are all indicated as being helpful for brain function.

The amino acids L-Phenylalanine and L-Tyrosine can assist in bringing these levels back up to a normal level as well as improving the overall mood and feeling of well-being

Current research findings....

This choice in medicine affects many of Our brain structures, but the ones it affects the most are the ones that contain a chemical called dopamine. The reason for this is that the shape, size, and chemical structure of meth and are similar.

The brain is made up of billions of nerve cells (or neurons). Neurons have three important parts: a cell body that contains the nucleus and directs the activities of the neuron; dendrites, short fibers that receive messages from other neurons and relay them to the cell body; and an axon, a long single fiber that carries messages from the cell body to dendrites of other neurons.

Axons of one neuron and the dendrites of a neighboring neuron are located very close to each other, but they don’t actually touch. Therefore, to communicate with each other they use chemical messengers known as neurotransmitters. When one neuron wants to send a message to another neuron it releases a neurotransmitter from its axon into the small space that separates the two neurons. This space is called a synapse. The neurotransmitter crosses the synapse and attaches to specific places on the dendrites of the neighboring neuron called receptors. Once the neurotransmitter has relayed its message, it is either destroyed or taken back up into the first neuron where it is recycled for use again.

There are many different neurotransmitters, but the one that is most affected by Methamphetamine is dopamine. Dopamine is sometimes called the pleasure neurotransmitter because it helps you feel good from things. When something pleasurable happens, certain axons release lots of dopamine. The dopamine attaches to receptors on dendrites of neighboring neurons and passes on the pleasure message. This process is stopped when dopamine is released from the receptors and pumped back into the neuron that released it where it is stored for later use.

Usually neurons recycle dopamine. But meth is able to fool neurons into taking it up just like they would dopamine. Once inside a neuron, the drug causes that neuron to release lots of dopamine. All this dopamine causes the person to feel an extra sense of pleasure that can last all day. But eventually these pleasurable effects stop.

Because it is similar to dopamine, Methamphetamine can change the function of any neuron that contains dopamine. And if this weren’t enough, it can also affect neurons that contain two other neurotransmitters called serotonin and norepinephrine. All of this means that meth can change how lots of things in the brain and the body work. Even small amounts of the drug can cause a person to be more awake and active, lose their appetite, and become irritable and aggressive.

Scientists are using brain imaging techniques, like positron emission tomography (called PET for short), to study the brains of human Methamphetamine users. They have discovered that even three years after long-time meth users had quit using the drug, their dopamine neurons were still damaged. Scientists don’t know yet whether this damage is permanent, but this research shows that changes in the brain from Methamphetamine use can last a long time. If a person uses the drug for a long time, they may become paranoid or even hallucinate.

Because meth causes big increases in blood pressure, someone using it for a long time may also have permanent damage to blood vessels in the brain. This will lead to strokes from brain bleeding.

I could go on an perhaps write a book... but the more I do the more depressing it is.

Doctor Meth

Post Quality Evaluations:
informative and detailed. sources?
Very interesting read
  #12  
Old 28-01-2011, 10:01
vorsybl vorsybl is offline
Banned
 
Join Date: 01-01-2011
26 y/o Male from United States
Posts: 89
vorsybl needs to UTFSE some more before posting.
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

Dopamine doesn't just control how good someone feels. It controls an abundance of other critical human functions like movement and sleep, the list goes on. Point is DONT FUCK WITH IT.
  #13  
Old 28-01-2011, 10:33
krank krank is offline
Account Awaiting Email Confirmation.
 
Join Date: 17-04-2010
Male from Australia
Posts: 17
krank should urgently read the rules & received reputation comments.
Points: 6, Level: 1 Points: 6, Level: 1 Points: 6, Level: 1
Activity: 0% Activity: 0% Activity: 0%
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

swim today was diagnosed with a.d.d which is linked to a lack of dopamine in the brain - he is a frequent meth user so is fearing he could be making a.d.d symptoms worse for himself.

swim has been given a script for ritalin which is meant to help release dopamine which is strange since it's pretty much an amphetamine...
  #14  
Old 28-01-2011, 12:30
vorsybl vorsybl is offline
Banned
 
Join Date: 01-01-2011
26 y/o Male from United States
Posts: 89
vorsybl needs to UTFSE some more before posting.
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

There are antagonist and agonist drugs, i think the latter would be ritalin since it "releases dopamine" and meth the antagonist which I suppose blocks its reuptake, correct me if im wrong just trying to apply the knowledge i have.

vorsybl added 1 Minutes and 22 Seconds later...

Actualy maybe it's an agonist also

Last edited by vorsybl; 28-01-2011 at 12:30. Reason: Automerged Doublepost
  #15  
Old 28-01-2011, 15:27
adamantane adamantane is offline
Silver Member
 
Join Date: 06-06-2010
34 y/o Male from United States
Posts: 2
adamantane is an unknown quantity at this point
Points: 24, Level: 1 Points: 24, Level: 1 Points: 24, Level: 1
Activity: 0% Activity: 0% Activity: 0%
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

Methylphenidate is a chain substituted amphetamine derivative.[1] Similar to amphetamines and cocaine, a key target of methylphenidate is the dopamine transporter (DAT).[2] Moreover, it is thought to act as a releasing agent by increasing the release of dopamine and norepinephrine.[3][4][5][6] Although methylphenidate is an amphetamine derivative subtle differences exist in its pharmacology; amphetamine works as a dopamine transport substrate whereas methylphenidate works as a dopamine transport blocker.[1] Methylphenidate is most active at modulating levels of dopamine and to a lesser extent noradrenaline.[7]
Methylphenidate has both DAT and NET binding affinity, with the dextromethylphenidate enantiomers displaying a prominent affinity for the norepinephrine transporter. Both the dextro- and levorotary enantiomers displayed receptor affinity for the serotonergic 5HT1A and 5HT2B subtypes, though direct binding to the serotonin transporter was not observed.[8]
The enantiomers and the relative psychoactive effects and CNS stimulation of dextro- and levo-methylphenidate is analogous to what is found in amphetamine, where dextro-amphetamine is considered to have a greater psychoactive and CNS stimulatory effect than levo-amphetamine.
Methylphenidate exerts its therapeutic effects via blocking the reuptake of dopamine into nerve terminals (as well as stimulating the release of dopamine from dopamine nerve terminals) resulting in increased dopamine levels in the synapse. [3][9] The onset of central nervous system effects occurs rapidly after intake of methylphenidate and persist for about 4 hours.[10] The mechanism of action is comparable with that of cocaine with usual doses of both drugs occupying 50% of dopamine transporters. However, effects such as euphoria that resembles that of cocaine are rare at doses prescribed clinically. [3][11][12]
The means by which methylphenidate affects people diagnosed with ADHD are not well understood. Some researchers have theorized that ADHD is caused by a dopamine imbalance in the brains of those affected. Methylphenidate is a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, which means that it increases the level of the dopamine neurotransmitter in the brain by partially blocking the dopamine transporter (DAT) that removes dopamine from the synapses.[13] This inhibition of DAT blocks the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine into the presynaptic neuron, increasing the amount of dopamine in the synapse. It also stimulates the release of dopamine and norepinephrine into the synapse. Finally, it increases the magnitude of dopamine release after a stimulus, increasing the salience of stimulus. An alternate explanation that has been explored is that the methylphenidate affects the action of serotonin in the brain.[3][14] However, benefits with other stimulants that have a different mechanism of action indicates that support for a deficit in specific neurotransmitters is unsupported and unproven by the evidence and remains a speculative hypothesis.[15]
1. ^ a b Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A (April 2005). "Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review" (PDF). Prog. Neurobiol. 75 (6): 406–33.doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2005.04.003. PMID 15955613.
2. ^ Iversen L (January 2006). "Neurotransmitter transporters and their impact on the development of psychopharmacology". British Journal of Pharmacology 147 (Suppl 1): S82–8.doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706428. PMID 16402124.
3. ^ a b c d Viggiano D, Vallone D, Sadile A (2004). "Dysfunctions in dopamine systems and ADHD: evidence from animals and modeling". Neural Plasticity 11 (1-2): 102, 106–107.doi:10.1155/NP.2004.97. PMID 15303308.Full-text [1]
4. ^ Novartis: Focalin XR Overview
5. ^ Focalin XR - Full Prescribing Information. Novartis.
6. ^ SPC Concerta XL 18 mg - 36 mg prolonged release tablets last updated on the eMC: 05/11/2010
7. ^ Heal DJ, Pierce DM (2006). "Methylphenidate and its isomers: their role in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder using a transdermal delivery system". CNS Drugs 20 (9): 713–38. doi:10.2165/00023210-200620090-00002. PMID 16953648.
8. ^ Markowitz JS, DeVane CL, Pestreich LK, Patrick KS, Muniz R (December 2006). "A comprehensive in vitro screening of d-, l-, and dl-threo-methylphenidate: an exploratory study". J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 16 (6): 687–98. doi:10.1089/cap.2006.16.687.PMID 17201613.
9. ^ Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Ding YS (June 2005). "Imaging the effects of methylphenidate on brain dopamine: new model on its therapeutic actions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder". Biol. Psychiatry 57 (11): 1410–5. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.11.006.PMID 15950015.
10. ^ Wolraich ML, Doffing MA (2004). "Pharmacokinetic considerations in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with methylphenidate". CNS Drugs 18 (4): 243–50.doi:10.2165/00023210-200418040-00004. PMID 15015904.
11. ^ Talbot, PS; Laruelle, M (2002). "The role of in vivo molecular imaging with PET and SPECT in the elucidation of psychiatric drug action and new drug development". European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology12 (6): 503–11. PMID 12468013. edit
12. ^ Dutta AK, Zhang S, Kolhatkar R, Reith ME (October 2003). "Dopamine transporter as target for drug development of cocaine dependence medications". European Journal of Pharmacology479 (1-3): 93–106. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2003.08.060. PMID 14612141.
13. ^ Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, et al. (October 1998). "Dopamine transporter occupancies in the human brain induced by therapeutic doses of oral methylphenidate". The American Journal of Psychiatry 155 (10): 1325–31. PMID 9766762.
14. ^ Gainetdinov RR, Caron MG (March 2001). "Genetics of childhood disorders: XXIV. ADHD, part 8: hyperdopaminergic mice as an animal model of ADHD". Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 40 (3): 380–2. doi:10.1097/00004583-200103000-00020.PMID 11288782.
15. ^ Koelega HS (1993). "Stimulant drugs and vigilance performance: a review".Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 111 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1007/BF02257400. PMID 7870923.

To follow up on Doctor Meth’s comment
Quote:
Originally Posted by Doctor Meth View Post
Scientists are using brain imaging techniques, like positron emission tomography (called PET for short), to study the brains of human Methamphetamine users. They have discovered that even three years after long-time meth users had quit using the drug, their dopamine neurons were still damaged. Scientists don’t know yet whether this damage is permanent, but this research shows that changes in the brain from Methamphetamine use can last a long time. If a person uses the drug for a long time, they may become paranoid or even hallucinate.
With some of the “newer” imaging techniques available, like the positron emission tomography you mentioned, scientists have shown that brain damage from abuse is reversible to an extent. At the present time, full recovery from heavy abuse has not been shown in any studies and is highly unlikely considering the physical modifications to the CNS components that evident in long term cases.
Partial Recovery of Brain Dopamine Transporters in Methamphetamine (METH) Abuser After Protracted Abstinence
J. of Neuroscience 21, 9414-9418, 2001.

Post Quality Evaluations:
thanks for the research info
good research efforts
Very informative, thanks for citing sources
  #16  
Old 28-01-2011, 23:40
sykes sykes is offline
Silver Member
 
Join Date: 23-10-2009
Male from Australia
Posts: 404
sykes is an unknown quantity at this point
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

Any damage made from strict casual use should cause minimum unnoticeable damage, its also possible that all damage is temporary and all you need is time.

Of course prolong abuse is asking for serious problems.
  #17  
Old 09-02-2011, 21:22
krank krank is offline
Account Awaiting Email Confirmation.
 
Join Date: 17-04-2010
Male from Australia
Posts: 17
krank should urgently read the rules & received reputation comments.
Points: 6, Level: 1 Points: 6, Level: 1 Points: 6, Level: 1
Activity: 0% Activity: 0% Activity: 0%
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

i may be looking at this wrong but does that mean ritalin and methamphetamine will cancell each other out with one trying to up dopamine and the other lowering it?
  #18  
Old 17-02-2011, 14:39
cheshirez cheshirez is offline
Silver Member
 
Join Date: 03-02-2011
27 y/o Male from United States
Posts: 49
cheshirez is an unknown quantity at this point
Points: 37, Level: 1 Points: 37, Level: 1 Points: 37, Level: 1
Activity: 0% Activity: 0% Activity: 0%
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

Quote:
Originally Posted by krank View Post
i may be looking at this wrong but does that mean ritalin and methamphetamine will cancell each other out with one trying to up dopamine and the other lowering it?
No, he was talking about how they work; with one pumping dopamine and the other preventing it from leaving. He also recanted his statement because both are agonists.
  #19  
Old 06-05-2011, 18:28
ubsweet2me ubsweet2me is offline
Banned
 
Join Date: 29-03-2011
49 y/o Male from United States
Posts: 65
ubsweet2me is an unknown quantity at this point
Points: 62, Level: 1 Points: 62, Level: 1 Points: 62, Level: 1
Activity: 0.6% Activity: 0.6% Activity: 0.6%
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

Say, I see all sorts of helpful information here on damage cause by extreme levels of neurochemicals and neurotoxins related to the things people tend to enjoy about using meth. But isn't there some discussion on direct tissue destruction and CNS collateral damage resulting from the chemistry of the chemical(s) in meth? Would this be a particular risk consideration for those who saturate themselves with concentrated amounts via I.V. delivery methods?
  #20  
Old 22-04-2013, 15:34
Crystal_Queen Crystal_Queen is offline
Silver Member
 
Join Date: 01-01-2011
27 y/o Female from Canada
Posts: 174
Crystal_Queen is a decent psychonaut.
Points: 127, Level: 1 Points: 127, Level: 1 Points: 127, Level: 1
Activity: 1.8% Activity: 1.8% Activity: 1.8%
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

Basically, everything that takes place passed the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)
was custom designed/fitted for the molecule DOPA (dihydroxyphenethylamine).

MAOI's, Re-uptake Inhibitors, Releasers, Supplements all work by modulating the system
to increase DOPA. Excess DOPA is less dangerous because it reacts with Oxygen to create
Epinephrine. It can also be destroyed by Enzymes that target it specifically.

Amphetamines are unique because they increase Natural DOPA: (dihydroxyphenethylamine)
but they also add extra none natural substitutions. METH: (N-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine)

This is important...because its unclear how METH is broken down passed the BBB.

1)MAO Enzymes likely won't recognize it,

2) the re-uptake pump will suck it up but it wont be able to
re-store it to DOPA.

3) Also the chemical reaction that occurs when METH reacts with Oxygen..
is believed to be the Neurotoxin responsible for Oxidative stress.

So, small irregular use should be relatively safe(er) so long as the METH doesn't completely, replace
DOPA. That happens with prolonged use.

_________________________________

There are plenty of other things to consider..

1) weakening of the BBB from repeated penetration of Alien Molecules.

2) Sleep deprivation on Long/Short Term memory

3) Encephalitis (Swelling of the brain, from extreme heat, that causes damage as it presses against skull)

4) Neuronal Over-stimulation.
_______________________________

Last edited by Crystal_Queen; 22-04-2013 at 15:41.
  #21  
Old 23-04-2013, 11:29
tulanthor tulanthor is offline
Silver Member
 
Join Date: 19-04-2012
Male from United States
Posts: 215
tulanthor is a decent psychonaut.tulanthor is a decent psychonaut.
Points: 264, Level: 2 Points: 264, Level: 2 Points: 264, Level: 2
Activity: 0.2% Activity: 0.2% Activity: 0.2%
Re: How does meth damage the brain?

The terms neurotoxicity and damage are typically used incorrectly in a lot of scientific literature. Neurotoxicity (i.e. brain damage) is never reversible. You never hear a (competent) doctor say, "he suffered major brain damage and we expect him to make a full recovery." What is damaged in your brain is damaged forever, there's very little hope in repairing it (after a certain age). Now our brains can change a lot, especially in terms of functionality. When you take just one dosage of methamphetamine, as long as it isn't insanely large, your brain changes - it isn't damaged. Your brain adjusts itself to this new substance being present and your dopamine transporters will show less activity. This is reversible, because this is change - not damage. Now if you are a chronic abuser taking high doses, especially if you are lacking the anti-oxidants your body needs or have a high body temperature, your brain will change and be damaged. The change is reversible, the damage is not.

Amphetamine/methamphetamine are not all that neurotoxic, but they do cause incredibly significant changes in the brain. Therapeutic doses have statistically insignificant neurotoxicity, but they do cause statistically significant changes in your brain.

If you want to prevent neurotoxicity, just take anti-oxidant supplements (e.g. vitamin C or green tea extract) and stay cool; you will prevent almost all of the neurotoxicity However, neither of these supplements nor keeping a low body temperature will prevent/reduce your brain adapting to its new environment and you will still have significantly lowered dopamine transport expression for potentially years.

Share this on:

Thread Tools


Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
Interesting scholarly drug facts rxbandit Pharmacology 24 27-07-2014 16:27
Paper beating Meth drum a little too loud renegades Miscellaneous News 2 18-05-2014 02:07
Treatment for Meth OD may harm brain Lunar Loops Methamphetamine 8 23-04-2013 08:07
Meth Overview from "Anti-Drug" standpoint (Nothing new) DrMuffy Methamphetamine 6 13-03-2013 04:56
SOME BRAIN RECOVERY POSSIBLE AFTER METH U Alfa Methamphetamine 1 12-05-2005 16:40

» New Threads
Need Help! - Methadone Withdrawal...
Last post by natey7
164 Replies, 24,262 Views
Today I Legally Purchased Cannabis...
Last post by D0pe
4 Replies, 184 Views
Ethylphenidate, AMT and 5-MeO-DALT...
Last post by Zipiffy
19 Replies, 1,938 Views
Etph to MPA but risk of addiction...
Last post by Zipiffy
1 Replies, 64 Views
Detoxin momma:things are changing...
Last post by detoxin momma
23 Replies, 784 Views
Is there a feeling of euphoria on...
Last post by Ghetto_Chem
12 Replies, 2,070 Views
How big of a dose for a first time...
Last post by Phungushead
2 Replies, 104 Views
A Study of Kratom Eaters in...
Last post by prescriptionperil
29 Replies, 21,335 Views
Question about using weekly
Last post by RealMartinKeller
5 Replies, 199 Views
Taking a break from OxyCodone...
Last post by adam525
4 Replies, 162 Views
» New Wiki Articles
GHB
NET

Sitelinks: Information:

All times are GMT +1. The time now is 16:11.


Copyright: SIN Foundation 2003 - 2014, All rights reserved